1. What is Cognitive Dissonance and how it happens?
According to Steven L. McShane and Mary Ann Von Glinow in the Organizational Behaviour book had mentioned that emotions and attitudes usually lead to behaviour, but behaviour sometimes influences our attitudes through the process of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance occurs when we perceive an inconsistency creates an uncomfortable tension (dissonance) that we are motivated to reduce by changing one or more of these elements. Behaviour is usually the most difficult element to change, particularly when it is known to everyone, was done voluntarily and can't be undone.
2. What is Emotional Dissonance and how it happens?
Steven L. McShane and Mary Ann Von Glinow defined emotional dissonance as the process of conflict that happen between the required emotions and the true one. Emotional dissonance is most common where employees must display emotions that are quite different from their true feelings and where emotional display rules are highly regulated.
Emotional dissonance does not always create stress. A recent study mentioned by the above authors had shown that stress and burnout levels depend on whether employees manage the emotional requirement through surface acting or deep acting.
3. What is cognitive dissonance and how it happens?
From the case, Bob encounters discomfort and dissatisfaction between what he believes, which is his confidence in the taxation job and his superior is going against his will to be in the taxation assignment. Therefore, he just kept quite and showed signals that he's open to them but deep inside it's the other way round.
4. What is Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect ( EVLN )Model?
They are the four ways that employees respond to job dissatisfaction:
Exit - leave the organization or transferring to another work unit.
Voice - Voice out dissatisfaction to the management of the organization in...