I. Introduction to TCP/IP:
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the oldest networking standard. TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. TCP/IP is the most popular of network layer protocols. It was developed for the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency NETwork (ARPANET is one of the early packet switching networks), and now used on the Internet. Eventually ARPANET became what is now known as the Internet (Fitzgerald & Dennis, 1999).
II. In The Beginning There Was The TCP/IP Protocol Suite:
In 1969 the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) created ARPANET. DARPA is the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DOD). DARPA manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development projects for the DOD. DARPA pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high, where success may provide dramatic advances for traditional military roles and missions and dual-use applications.
DARPA was specifically charged with creating a network that would remain functional, even if segments of the network were disrupted.
ARPANET was brought to public attention in 1972 and the network was only comprised of about 50 computers. A company entitled Beranek and Newman, Inc., which was located in Massachusetts, ran the operation center for ARPANET. The research sites needed a variety of protocols to enable communication between the computers so DARPA was prompted to fund for the development of a set of protocols for communication on ARPANET. In 1974, Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn proposed the design that formed the basis for TCP/IP. In 1978 Cerf and Kahn finally completed their task. TCP/IP became the official standard protocol used on ARPANET in 1983 (Forouzan, 1999).
Originally ARPANET was used for military purposes only, but during the late...