Essay by nathanjonesHigh School, 11th gradeA-, December 2012

download word file, 3 pages 0.0

Downloaded 1 times

Lincoln College Prep Academy



Penguins are a group of flightless birds who primarily live in the southern hemisphere. Their tuxedo-like appearance is called counter-shading. Not only is this a trait it is a form of camouflage that keeps them safe underwater. Penguins reproduce sexually. The ways they do it though is what caught my eye. Penguins have three types of courtships: Ecstatic, Mutual, and Bowing.

Ecstatic, also called trumpeting, involves head swinging or advertisement, this establishes possession of a nest site, and it attracts females, it also warns other males to stay away. In Mutual when paired, male and female penguins perform the mutual display together. This display seems to strengthen the bond. Bowing displays lessens the chance of aggression and strengthen respect between partners.

The penguin diet can be made up of fish, krill, squid and other forms of sea-life. Penguins can spend up to 75% of their lives in the water.

They do all of their hunting in the water. Their prey can be found not far from the surface. They catch prey in their beaks and swallow them whole and swim at the same time!

Penguins for the most part breed in large colonies. Living in colonies results in a high level of social interaction between birds, which has led to a large "vocabulary" of visual as well as vocal displays in all penguin species. Penguins are always in big groups which lead to lots of social interactions sometimes good and bad. In some cases when mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another mother's chick; usually they are unsuccessfully as other females in the area help the victim mother in keeping her chick.

Literature Review:

Penguins interact with other species rarely. They don't because their habitat (The Arctic) has few animals and...