Sigmund Freud based his theory of psychodynamics with observations of his family, patients and himself. Freud's psychodynamic theory states that personality emerges during childhood during the psychosexual stages of development.
The five stages of psychosexual development are the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage, and the genital stage. In each stage of development, the child gains sensual pleasure from a particular part of their bodies and if a child's needs in a particular stage are met too much not met enough, the child can become fixated. Fixation is an inability to progress normally from one stage into another. When the child becomes an adult, the fixation shows up as a tendency to focus on the needs that were over-met or under-met.
Psychosexual Stages of Development:
Age Stage Area of pleasure Result of fixation
Birth to Two Oral stage The mouth Over-met: dependency, gullibility, passivity, the need for a lot of attention.
Under-met: sarcasm, verbal aggression, cynicism
Two-Three Anal stage The anus Over-met: (Anal-expulsive) untidy, destructive, disorderliness and cruelty.
Under-met: (Anal-retentive) excessively clean, orderly, organised, stubborn and stingy
Three - Five Phallic stage The genitals Guilt or anxiety about sex
Five - Puberty Latency Stage Sexuality is hidden No fixations
Puberty Genital stage The genitals No fixations
In the humanistic view, people are responsible for their lives and actions and have the freedom and will to change their attitudes.
Abraham Maslow argues that personality is determined by a hierarchy of physiological, security, love and esteem needs to be achieved in order for the individual to reach self-actualisation. Self-actualisation is about realising your full potential and about being the best person you can be.
The highest rung on Abraham Maslow's ladder of human motives is the need for self-actualization. Maslow said that human beings...