Government exists in order to organise a society or nation into a manageable unit. It seeks to formulate laws for the purpose of instituting a fair, equitable and just society in which individual citizens expect to live safely being organised both to contribute to and to benefit from sound governing policy. Broadly speaking policy consists of three overhead functions which are: policy making, policy implementation and policy analysis and evaluation.
The task of this assignment is to concentrate only on policy-making with particular reference to the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. The policy-making process has three main steps, namely policy initiation; policy formulation and policy approval. Policy making, is one of the six administrative enabling functions which should be done in an orderly manner.
Firstly, the nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa is explained and discussed by using definitions to explain the various terminologies in order to understand to concept of policy-making.
Secondly, the first step of policy making process, namely, policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa, is discussed. Policy initiation has three steps, namely becoming aware of the problem, describing the problem and the collection of information regarding the elimination of the high crime rate.
Thirdly, the second step of the policy making process namely, policy formulation with reference to the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa needs to be examined. Policy formulation has six steps, namely, liaison with interested parties, the processing of information, the setting of objectives, determining the priorities, considering the alternatives, the survey of financial resources.
Fourthly, the final step of policy making is discussed, namely policy approval for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
A scientific approach is used in this assignment. Each step contains facts followed by an explanation of the facts, the application of the theory by using the elimination of high crime in South Africa as an example and lastly deductions are made at the end of each section. Sources that were used were taken from various books and via the internet.
In order to understand the policy-making process the nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa is to be discussed.
1.The nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
Policy-making is one of the six administrative enabling functions. In order to understand public policy-making it is necessary to define and explain the following concepts: administrative enabling function: public policy and policy making.
1.1.The meaning of administrative as an enabling function.
Meiring (2001:48) explains that the "enabling functions can be divided into six main groups, for example, policy-making: the creation of structures and posts; financial provision; personnel provision; determining work procedures and determining control measures and standards. Meiring (2001:47) further states that "no activity can be carried out, no goal pursued or objective achieved without the continuous provision of indispensable and specific means", for example resources.
In order for service delivery to take effect, policies need to be instituted. Policies are the objectives of government and therefore it is necessary for the resources to have a continuous uninterrupted flow. Resources are the commodities used in the production of goods and services. In this case the government supplies a service to the community and therefore needs the resources to fulfil this obligation. Resources referred to would be human and capital resources. Capital resources are, for example, buildings, vehicles and finance. The uses of auxiliary functions, for example, the usage of computers, are supportive in role and a necessity in order for the South African Police Service to be efficient and effective in the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
1.2. The meaning of public policy.
The nature of policy is a multidimensional and there are various definitions of what public policy is. According to Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:27-28) the following basic fundamentals of public policy can be identified and are summarised below:Policy is developed by government role players, "although non-government role players may influence the policy formulation and development" and public policy is a "purposive or goal-orientated action rather than random or chance behaviour" (Fox, Schwella and Wissink: 1991:27). Hanekom (1987:7) further elaborates and describes policy-making as "the activity preceding the publication of a goal" and it is therefore a "formally articulated goal that the legislator intends pursuing with society." Botes et al (1992:191) further describes public policy making as being the "systematic actions" which should be taken to achieve the goals of the relevant institution. Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:27-28) further state that public policy generally consists of a series of decisions taken jointly by politicians and/or officials rather than individual decisions. Public policy is a "future-orientated", changing document which is aimed at the general welfare of the public (Fox, Schwella and Wissink: 1991:29).
Thus, public policy is a systematic goal-orientated action that is developed by governmental bodies and officials in consultation with the public, which emerges in response to public demand. Public policy is a future-orientated document which not only shows the statement of intent by government but interprets the values of society. Therefore the policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa would be to enhance a safer and more secure environment for its citizens.
1.3. The meaning of policy making.
Cloete (1998:139) explains that for the "purpose of public administration the term policy-making should be used to refer to the functions performed to obtain policies. Functions are the smallest activity that a person can do in order to obtain the goals set out. So therefore, policy-making consists of the performance of a group of generic administrative process" which "must be undertaken in an orderly manner" (Cloete: 1998:139).
Therefore the functions to eliminate South Africa of the high crime rate, for example, would be for a police constable to patrol the neighbourhood (visible policing).
Chapter two is concerned with the first step of policy making, being policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
2.Policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org) defines the word initiation as being derived from Latin and implies a beginning. "The related term, initiate means to begin or start a particular action, event, circumstance, or happening". Therefore "initiation" in this context means the activation of the public making process. It is therefore necessary to do a methodical investigation when a problem arises so that an effective and efficient rational policy could be implemented. Such investigation requires three steps within policy initiation which consists of the following: becoming aware of the problem; describing the problem and collecting information for solving and or preventing the problem.
The first step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, becoming aware of the problem of the high crime rate in South Africa.
2.1.Becoming aware of the problem of the high crime rate in South Africa.
The recognition of a problem is reliant on the accessibility of information on the needs that move the citizen to gain the attention of the government, who in turn would decide to act or not to act. Meiring (2001:53) further explains that "by referring to "something" as a problem, the presumption is made that a value-judgement on a specific condition in a specific place and time, is seen by a person or group(s) of persons, as being unsatisfactory". If the government is unaware of the problems affecting society various stakeholders or interest groups would take the initiative and make government aware of the problem. Usually within a democratic environment the politicians and officials attempt to find solutions to the problem affecting society.
Meiring (2001:53) further explains that when government wants to implement change that the characteristic of the policy making is "dynamic" and that the "awareness of the problem refers to a threefold activity." The threefold activity as explained by Meiring (2001:53) has the following implications in the policy initiation stage. Firstly it creates an awareness and refers to a "new field of action and the need to undertake a search for development possibilities to promote the "good life"" Meiring (2001:53). The second implication refers to the awareness of an "existing problem in the community and the need to undertake a search for a possible solution to solve the problem" Meiring (2001:53). The third implication refers to the "awareness of a potential problem and the need to undertake a search for a quantifiable solution to prevent the problem" Meiring (2001:53).
The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) held a seminar in Pretoria on the 9th March 2007 following events in the past few months that have raised questions about a growing wave of public dissatisfaction with crime and government's response to it. Examples that were mentioned were and "include statements in the media and parliament by the president and cabinet ministers, the aborted FNB media and letter-writing campaign, and increased media reports of vigilantism" (http://www.iss.co.za). The ISS seminar reviewed the "links between crime and perception, based on the latest available quantitative data" (http://www.iss.co.za). The topic under discussion was: "Crime Trends and Public Perceptions: What the Latest Statistics Show" (http://www.iss.co.za). In brief and relating to the topic of this assignment one of the summations were that "crime and unemployment remained the only two out of the twenty-three critical areas in which government has constantly achieved less than a "pass mark" (http://www.iss.co.za).
Further more the South African Police Service has various existing policies in place for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa, for example, the South African Police Service Act (No.68 of 1995); National crime prevention strategy and the implementation of the development of community policing policy (http://www.iss.co.za). Therefore it is apparent that the government is aware of the problem of the high crime rate and is attempting to deal with it.
It is of utmost importance that the policy makers do not treat the symptoms, but the actual cause of the problem. Crime has multiple causes as it falls within the socio-economic environment. The social environment is "multifaceted and consists of a number of interrelated factors" (Van Der Waldt et al: 2002:168). Recent studies suggest that there is a link between poor economic condition (the high unemployment rate) and crime (Fox, Van Wyk and Fourie: 1998:179).
The deduction is made that the policy-making process would always involve interactions between the citizens and the state institutions, for example political office bearers and officials, who have to perform the policy-making functions. It is due to the actions of the stakeholders, whether political and or civic, that the government becomes aware of the problem. The high crime rate is a socio-economic problem which has a complex and unified factors. The factors, for example are the high unemployment rate and poverty. Further more the deduction could be made that there are existing policies in place for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa but that the implementation of the policies are severely lacking.
The second step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, describing the problem for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
2.2.Describing the problem for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
In order to describe the problem correctly, the information needs to be obtained in an orderly manner and it must documented in a written format. Information is needed, as per Meiring (2001:54), "regarding the results that are desired, obstacles that are experienced and the limitations of the situation and thus of a solution". Meiring (2001:55) further states that the "diagnosis and description of a problem is a cyclical process which requires continuous analysis and evaluation if the policy makers wish to take realistic decisions to meet the demands of a changing environment".
In order to seek a solution to the problem it is necessary to describe the nature and scope of the problem. As Meiring (2001:55) further states that by describing the problem it leads to an "observable presentation or description which could be seen as the image of the real situation". Meiring (2001:55) further states that it is the effectiveness of how the "written description or presentation corresponds to the real problem that would depend on the abilities of the participants in the process as well as the quality of information that is available". The method in obtaining and processing information is therefore linked to the "human factor and is influenced by the values and perceptions of those participating in these activities." Meiring (2001:55)"The situation is further complicated by the perceivable/observable reality which changes with time and which in turn results not only in a change of needs or in problems, but also values". Meiring (2001:55) For example a couple of years ago, domestic violence was perceived to be a private matter. Currently, due to various action groups, domestic violence is no longer a private issue but has become a national issue.
In order to eliminate the high level of crime in South Africa the description of the problem must be specific. So therefore, for example, the elimination of the high crime rate within the central business district of Johannesburg could be described as follows. The geographic scope would be large, covering the areas that fall within the central business district. More categories could be created, "for example the inner city and former black townships" (http://www.csvr.org.za). As per the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), the nature of the crimes could range from "housebreaking, street crime, property crime and violent crime" (http://www.csvr.org.za). Further more the nature of the crimes are different and vary depending on the area in question.
Therefore it can be deduced that there are various occurrences which should be taken into account when describing the problem. The factual information; the values and perceptions of the participants or the values and perceptions between the officials and politicians. To complicate matters further, there may be different views held by the state and the citizens. For example, the citizens believe that the crime rate is on the increase and the state believes the opposite to be true. The policy-making process is a complex matter and the description of the problem must be accurately recorded.
The third step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, the collection of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
2.3.The collection of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
The collection of information is interwoven with the previously mentioned steps, namely, becoming aware of the problem and describing the problem. The policy-makers who take policy decisions must be served with adequate information systems.
In order to deal with the problem, Meiring (2001:55) states it is of utmost importance that such problems are defined in "quantifiable terms." The term quantifiable means that the collecting of information must be dealt with in a scientific manner. Cloete (1998:139) declares that "it is the functions involved in obtaining information which should be performed systematically to deliver information with which the matter to be decided upon can be quantified and qualified". Once an issue (problem) is recognised, various decisions need to be taken. While making decisions cognisance must be taken of both factual information and value judgements pertaining to the issue. Meiring (2001:56) explains that "factual information relates to the observable, measurable information that can be collected". Meiring (2001:56) further explains that "values on the other hand relate to the inherent human feelings for what is, for example, valuable, wanted or pursued". A middle ground must be found between factual information and the values of the people. It must also be kept in mind that there may not be a significant amount of information available and therefore the cost effectiveness of such an exercise must be scrutinised. Collecting information is also time-consuming. It goes without saying that during this stage there is interaction and communication with all the relevant role playersInformation could be gained through research and data gathering. Some of the information could be obtained from structured interviews with Station Commissioners at randomly selected police stations. The community and businesses may be approached with the same structural questionnaire. Various statistics may be gathered from other organizations, for example, CSVR to confirm whether the crime rate has decreased or increased or what the opinions are of the community. This information gathering would involve an analysis of the information which is time consuming and which may disclose differences in notions perceived as per example the notion of "crime" which is socially constructed.
The deduction is made that on collection of information, not only is quantifiable data collected but perceptions and values as well. It is at the analysis of information that differences between factual data and values are shown.
Chapter three is concerned with the policy formulation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.Policy formulation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
Policy formulation is the second step within policy making. Policy formulation consists of six steps which are: liaison with interested parties; processing information; setting of objectives; determining priorities; considering alternatives and the survey of financial resources.
Anderson, (1984:93) defines policy formulation to "the crafting of proposed alternatives or options for handling a problem". Meiring's (2001:56) definition is more pertinent at defining formulation, which is, "the clear, precise and accurate wording of processed information so as to achieve a specific aim". The information gained must be "classified, described and processed into the required proposals" (Meiring: 2001:56). Policy formulation must be a written description of the problem in order to make a choice on the "available alternatives to solve or prevent the problem (Meiring: 2001:56). The various actions which comprise policy formulation are often described as agenda setting. An agenda is usually a list of items to be dealt with within a meeting and are usually prioritised according to importance. Cloete and Wissink (2000:98) elucidate that it is "necessary to set a policy agenda because of the deluge of policy-related issues and problems that any government faces, normally with insufficient resources to address these problems effectively." And therefore policy agenda setting is of the utmost importance to determine which policy problems should receive priority.
It is imperative to mention that decision making is an important part of policy formulation as policy makers have to decide the best policy amongst the alternatives. Not only do policy-makers decide on facts they must also make decisions on values and still remain impartial.
Policy formulation would give proposed alternatives to the problem of the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa and consists of various steps which are listed below.
The first step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, liaison with interested parties for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.1.Liaison with interested parties for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
It is of utmost importance to liaise with key interested and relevant parties in order to "determine the public perceptions of a specific matter and to find the correct solutions" to these problems (Meiring: 2001:56). Interest groups are beneficial to policy makers because "they are committed to their cause" and are "willing to supply information and advice" (Craythorne: 1993:69). Various interested parties are identified by Kuye et al (2002:77) as non-governmental organisations, civilian-based organisations, research institutes, public officials, political parties, media, departmental and interdepartmental committees. The above list is not exhaustive.
Meiring further states that the "factual information and non-quantifiable values can also be tested in such a liaison" (Meiring: 2001:57). The real needs of the citizens must be suitably identified and an acceptable solution agreed upon to eliminate the high crime level in South Africa. Craythorne (1993:69) cautions that interested groups are so zealous about their cause that they will supply information that is beneficial. It is of utmost importance for a compromise and a solution to take place so that the end result of the policy would be to promote the general welfare of all citizens.
In June 2006, Business Against Crime signed a memorandum of understanding to establish the Industry Alignment Forum Aggravated Robberies Initiative. Nine parties indicated in principle support for the initiative, which are: Business Against Crime; Cash in Transit Forum; Casinos Association of South Africa; Consumer Goods Council of South Africa; Security Industry Alliance; South African Banking Risk Information Centre; South African Council of Shopping Centres; South African Property Owners Association and the South African Reserve Bank. (http://www.bac.org.za.). Business Against Crime acknowledges that the cooperation of government and its agencies are critical to the success of this initiative and that they were pleased by the SAPS interest and support (http://www.bac.org.za.).
The deduction that can be made is that democracy can be strengthened if everyone works in a coordinated manner to address the challenge of the high crime rate through effective liaisioning.
The second step in policy formulation must be discussed, namely, the processing of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.2.The processing of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
The data is collected from various surveys and once compiled into various reports, the data becomes information. The information is compiled in various reports, agendas and memoranda forwarded to various commissions of enquiry; departmental and interdepartmental committees, selected committees and various caucuses and councils. One of the most important guidelines in drafting a policy is that it must be done in a rational manner.
Hanekom et al (2001:27) explains that "rationality in decision-making, as in policy-making, pertains to the making of reasoned, careful selections from alternatives in order to achieve predetermined ends." Hanekom et al (2001:27) quote common barriers to rationality, which are mentioned as follows. "The personal value preference of both politicians and administrators may influence their objectivity in deciding on policy matters" (Hanekom et al: 2001:27) and therefore the decisions become subjective. The "expenditure already approved for a specific project is not easily reversed" and is known as "sunken costs" (Hanekom et al: 2001:27) The third barrier to rationality is known as the "conflicting consequences" whereby "the anticipated consequence of a policy are often in conflict with the unanticipated consequences of that policy" (Hanekom et al: 2001:27). Lastly, since "policy-making is aimed at the future and the future is unknown, a certain amount of speculation is involved" and this is known as the "expectations of the future" (Hanekom et al: 2001:27).
The other guideline in drafting a policy is that a policy must be defendable which relates to accountability. The policy-makers should be accountable to all role players in that they should be able to explain and defend the proposed policy. Meiring, (2001:57) further suggests that policy should conform to the "will and wishes of the majority of the citizens".
For example, all the data gathered from the survey done in the Johannesburg city centre has been compiled into various reports agendas and memorandum. In order for further clarity and recommendations to take place a series of public hearings are organised and held. These public hearings are held to in "order to justify policy attention and it forms the focus for further clarification, formulation and restructuring before the importance of acting on it by the policy system is conveyed to the policy-makers". (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:98)The deduction could be made that the process of information must be defendable and rational and that this process is cyclical in nature and in order for policy to succeed all relevant parties must be consulted.
The third step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the setting of objectives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.3.The setting of objectives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
In this step it becomes possible for policy-makers to identify objectives of the intended policy. The objectives would indicate what the intensions are; how to go about achieving the objectives and by what means the objective would be achieved. In other words, what resources and capital would be needed to achieve the intended policy?Cloete and Wissink (2000:117) explain that "objectives set forth specific aims". In other words objectives are "measurable in quantifiable terms" (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:117). The nature of objectives is normative as it states "what ought to be achieved by a particular policy and contains elements of forecasting" (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:117). Cloete and Wissink (2000:117-118) elucidate that objective setting is linked with forecasting "by a natural progression, and is concerned with a desired future". It must be noted that policy is a "dynamic phenomenon" and "objectives, by themselves, are static" (Kuye et al: 2002:74). This statement implies that "policy containing broad guidelines of governmental action" must change according to the needs of the citizens, "whilst objectives remain static in terms of time". (Kuye et al: 2002:74)Meiring (2001:58) states "that when an objective has been set and made known in the public sector it is normally said that the policy has been made. It is imperative that clear objectives are set out "in order that all persons involved will know exactly the target at which activities are aimed" (Meiring: 2001:58).
Therefore to reiterate, clear unambiguous objectives need to be set. The objectives within policy-making would indicate what the intensions are; how to go about achieving the objectives and by what means the objective would be achieved in order that all persons involved know what activities are aimed at.
For example, the specific objective to eliminate the high crime rate within the city of Johannesburg alone would be to increase the number of visible policing from four to six policemen per city block over a period of one year who would sign a roster at every business within their "beat". The Police Service would work in co-ordination with Business Against Crime and the public by having regular meetings to inform and educate. Cameras could be installed at various strategic places within the central business district. Increased street lighting needs to be installed in residential areas. A Zero crime tolerance campaign could be launched that would emphasise the arrest of petty criminals.
It could be deduced from this section that the setting and prioritising (which will be discussed within the next step) of objectives is a process called policy making. Clear objectives need to be set and that objective setting is a statement of a desired future.
The fourth step in policy formulation would then be discussed, namely, the establishment of priorities for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.4.Determining the priorities for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
No government is in a position to continuously satisfy all the needs of its citizens as there is a limited amount of resources to accomplish all the needs. The most important scarce resource is finance. There is a difference between actual needs and the expected needs. Meiring (2001:58) further states that "needs are not equal and often difficult to compare or weigh up against each other". The objectives, as stated before must be clearly defined. Meiring (2001:58) further elaborates that the "network of objectives should also be ranked in a priority list, whereby it becomes clear which objectives are more important than others. When policy makers rank and prioritise their objectives two questions are asked, "what should be done and what can be done, to solve or eliminate a problem (Meiring: 2001:58)?Cloete and Wissink (2000:122) state that the more "complex and comprehensive a policy is in terms of societal needs or demands, the greater the danger of multiple and sometimes conflicting goals and objectives can become". Therefore Cloete and Wissink (2000:122) suggest different tasks that need to be fulfilled. One suggestion would be "establish a system of relative values and trade-off's among the objectives" (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122). In other words to "trade-off" one objective for another. The other task would be to "prioritise the objectives and then to optimise in sequence" (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122). In practice this means that the selected objectives are not necessarily the best available objectives, but that the policy would satisfy the larger section of society (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122).
For example to determine the priorities for the elimination of crime the final prioritised list would appear as follows:What should be done VSWhat can be doneEight policemen within one city block.Four policemen within a city block.
Installation of cameras on every city block.Installation of cameras in problem areas only.
Zero crime tolerance campaign.Only enough manpower to deal with serious crimeIt is extremely difficult to prioritise the objectives as the needs list is endless but the resource list is extremely scarce. The policy-maker needs to determine the actual needs from the expected needs which is very difficult to weigh up against.
The fifth step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the consideration of alternatives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.5.The consideration of alternatives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
Once the real issue is recognised, the next step would be to recognise alternative solutions. Craythorne (1993:63) cautions that it is at this step that a "particular danger arises, of becoming entangled in a search after an infinite number of solutions in order to find the optimum or best solution". Craythorne (1993:63) further states that "firm leadership is required during this phase of policy-making to ensure that only those solutions are identified which are practical, feasible and likely to solve the problem in the most satisfying way and within the means available".
In order to consider which alternative would be the best a list should be drawn up including "the determining of all available consequences and a comparative evaluation of each consequence"(Meiring: 2001:59). The word consequence has a two fold meaning, effect and side effect. The effect of the policy refers to the policy output. Policy output as per, Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:32) "involves the production of policies in the form of formal legislation, administrative rules and regulations, judicial interpretation" and so forth. The side effect of a policy refers to the impact that that particular policy would have on the environment or on other policies.
There are certain criteria that a policy-maker could use that would assist in the choice between alternatives. Considering the page limits on this assignment the most important criteria only are mentioned. The first criteria would be effectiveness which is "often measured in terms of units of products or services." (Van Niekerk, Jonker and Van Der Waldt: 2001: 96) The second choice would be efficiency which addresses the costs of services. Adequacy would be the next criteria and usually "refers to the extent to which any given level of effectiveness satisfies the needs, values or opportunities that give rise to a problem." (Van Niekerk: Jonker: Van Der Waldt: 2001: 96)It is important that the solutions are identified which are practical, feasible and likely to solve the problem in the most satisfying way and within the means available as resources such as finance and human capital are scarce. The alternatives to the solution should be listed and cognisance should be taken that the policy would have an effect on the legislation, administrative rules and any other effect. The side effects refer to the impacts on other policies and the environment. The criteria that would help a policy-maker are effectiveness, efficiency, and adequacy. Effectiveness refers to "doing the right things right"; efficiency refers to maximum output with minimum input and adequacy refers the extent that the policy satisfies the needs, values and opportunities of the citizens.
Criticism, has been levied as to whether the Community Policing Forums (CPF) are still effective in enhancing public safety and if it still includes the assistance of community in combating crime. In a paper entitled South Africa's changing community policing policy by the Institute for Security Studies the inception of the CPF in 1996 with the promulgation of the National Crime Prevention Strategy with the "intention to establish broad partnership with the community to improve police services and reduce crime" (http://www.iss.co.za.) is discusses. The CPF' were created by legislation and were given the right to exercise public functions in terms of that legislation. Since then various other legislation and interim regulations had the effect of either "directly avoiding or downgrading the issue of state support for the CPF's and even specifically outlawing some current practises of the CPF that facilitate support for their activities". (http://www.iss.co.za.). The result is two fold. Firstly, policy-makers who were formulating the subsequent legislation never thought what the effect and side effect would have on the CPF. Therefore, to date the CPF is a policy that exists on paper alone which is inadequate, inefficient, and ineffective and fails to respond to the needs of all the citizens.
Thus it can be deduced that policy has a direct effect and an indirect effect, the effect of other legislation on CPF negated the positive impact of CPF. Policy needs to be reviewed regularly to ensure relevance and effectiveness.
The sixth step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the the survey of financial resources for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
3.6.The survey of financial resources for the eliminate the high crime rate in South Africa.
"Budgeting is more than a set of procedures for controlling the volume of funds flowing to agencies and programs; it is also a means and a source of opportunities for shaping the direction and intensity of public policies and the scope of governmental activities" (Anderson:1984:179). Anderson (1984:182) further states that the budget is also a statement of policy and in reality conflicts over money are conflicts over policy. Public revenue needs to be raised to fund public services and new ways need to be found to increase the traditional sources of income. The four main sources of traditional income as per Van Der Waldt et al. (2002:9) are: income taxation, eg personal income tax; wealth taxation for example capital gains tax; consumption taxation for example value added tax and user charges, for example, consumer tariffs.
Budget gives focus to specific issues of policy thus a particular ministry which received above inflation budget increases should render a better service year on year. For example the Minister of Finance granted the Ministry of Safety and Security a 43% increase between budget year 2003/04 and budget year 2006/07.
One can deduce that finance supports policy. (The converse is all so true) Emphasis can be shifted from one program to another by shifting financial backing.
Policy approval is the third and final step within the policy-making process for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
4.Policy approval for the eliminate of the high crime rate in South AfricaPolicy approval is the final step in the policy-making process. Once policy makers have formulated a policy the policy is forwarded for consideration and authorisation of a policy. Meiring (2001:59) states that "policy is found in many forms, as well as various formats because policy making takes place on various levels and various participants play a co-operative role". Public policy can be examined on four levels which are political, executive, departmental and operational policy.
The policy on the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa would result in a specific policy and will have "political, executive, departmental and operational aspects", which must be first determined ".(Meiring: Personal Notes:9) Each aspect "must be formulated and approved, before a policy can be implemented" ".(Meiring: Personal Notes:9) There would be an higher premium of value placed on the elimination of the high crime rate as it is a political policy.
According to Meiring (Personal Notes:10) there is a specific procedure which is usually followed for the approval of policy.
4.1. The procedure for consideration and approval of the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa Bill.
The specific procedure by Meiring (Personal Notes:10) is now recorded for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa.
A public bill is introduced by the Minister of Safety and Security and is dealt with as follows:Ã¢ÂÂ¢Introduction and first reading where notice is given of the intention to submit a Bill on a specific subject on a specific day. On that day the measure is tabled and the short title is read, being The Elimination of the High Crime RateÃ¢ÂÂ¢The second reading commences with the introduction of the policy formulated by the proposed Bill by the Minister of Safety and Security. The subjected is debated and alternative amendments are forwarded until the House accepts the policy.
Ã¢ÂÂ¢The third phase is the Committee Stage. The Chairman of Committees, the deputy speaker, acts as chairman for the meeting where each section of the Bill is read and debated separately. In the committee stage, the contents of the Bill are thus discussed to ascertain whether the measure will succeed in carrying into effect the policy debated in the second reading.
Ã¢ÂÂ¢Report stage. After the committee stage the speaker takes over as Chairman and the Chairman of Committees reports on the resolution of the Committee.
Ã¢ÂÂ¢The third reading that follows seldom initiates further discussion and is executed to review the Bill in its entirety.
Ã¢ÂÂ¢After approved by the House the Bill is referred to the President for signature.
Ã¢ÂÂ¢After signature by the State President the Bill is published in the Government Gazette, after which date the Bill is an enforceable Act of Parliament.
ConclusionGovernment exists to satisfy the needs of the community. In order to meet the needs and demands of the community, government has to develop policies to meet those needs and demands. Therefore the citizens expect service delivery which is linked to policy and policy implementation. Policy indicates what government intentions are. The policy-making process is a time consuming and complicated because of the structure of government. The policy-making is time and space bound and it takes place within a changing environment. It is imperative that the citizens are consulted during the policy-making process so that policy is adequate, effective and efficient in addressing the needs of the citizen.
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