Political theory in it's simplest form is man's belief on not only how politics work, but how they should work. Philosophers throughout history have concerned themselves with political institutions, laws, and customs; how they are constructed and upheld within a particular society. They've also touched on the various goals and obligations of political action. It is essentially the political philosopher's responsibility to differentiate between what "is" and what "ought to be", within existing political institutions and potentially more just and benevolent institutions. This distinction of what "is" and what "ought to be", serves as fuel for endless philosophical debate.
How society "ought" to be governed is a controversy which has run rampant since the first "philosophers" walked the Earth, and will beat it's drum until the end of time. When there is a particular political government or organization in power, it is inevitable that an individual, or group of individuals will come up with a "better", more idealistic way to govern or rule the people (in their opinion).
All throughout history, such theorists and their theories have been made public, some having influence on rule, and some not.
It is a situation, in my eyes, that has been, and always will be cyclical. Nature and the beings within it, are constantly changing, hence bringing about change in their moral values and overall ideologies.
Aristotle may be considered the founder of the scientific approach to political theory. His political inquiries and ideals provided an ambitious model for political thought. According to Aristotle, the moral goal in political authority is only a alternate device which stems from an individual's happiness. It was originally formed for the satisfaction of "natural wants".
It then goes further, for the promotion of a higher, prosperous life.
His Politics were governments in the form of monarchies,