Politics and the English Language: Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1: Orwell's thesis is somewhat stated, but also implied. His thesis is that any effect can become a cause, such that something that starts as an aid for a different ailment may eventually become detrimental.
2: Orwell's analogy of the cause and effect of alcohol abuse to the demise of lanuage in paragraph two is very effective. It shows a chain reaction, where the person starts drinking alcohol to combat a problem in their live, but then the alcohol eventually leads to more difficult problems.
3: In Paragraph 4, Orwell uses a simile to compare "phrases tacked together" to "sections of a prefabricated henhouse". That shows how prose consists of words that aren't necessarily chosen for their meaning, but instead just because it's easy.
In Paragraph 12, Orwell uses a similie to compare someone "choking" to "tea leaves blocking a sink", which shows how the author knows what he wants to say, but sometimes he has too many "stale phrases" in his head.
In paragraph 15, Orwell uses a similie to compare "a mass of Latin words fall upon the facts" to "soft snow", which blurs the outlines, and covers up the details. In paragraph 16, Orwell compares "his words" to "cavalry horses answering the bugle", which create an analogy that is effective because both words and cavalry horses are powerful.
4: Removing the extensive uses of examples in paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 weakens Orwell's argument, and makes the passage less interesting and boring to read. The examples also aid Orwell's credibility as a writer.
5: The additional information in the footnotes in paragraphs 7 and 8 serve to clarify and expand on his ideas. I believe that...