IntroductionThe term psychology originates from two Greek words 'psyche', meaning soul or mind and 'logos' meaning study or knowledge. Therefore by its original definition psychology was initially described as 'the study of the soul or mind'. By the late 19th century, when psychology became an independent scientific discipline, it was described as 'the science of mental life'. At this time psychologists studied the mind by asking their research participants to describe their mental experiences, by asking questions such as "What are you thinking" or "What are you feeling?" Today the discipline of psychology is defined more precisely as the study of the nature and development of mind and behaviour on both humans and animals, including the biological structures and processes that underpin and sustain both. (Grivas 2004, p.1)BehaviourWhat is BehaviourThe term behaviour refers to all of an organism's overt actions, that is, those actions that can be directly observed. An organism is any living person directly observed.
Behavioural changes accompanying stress can be seen in how a person looks, acts or talks. Strained facial expressions, a shaky voice, hand tremors or muscle spasms and jumpiness are common behavioural responses to stress.
Behavioural changes accompanying stress can be seen in how a person looks, acts or talks. Strained facial expressions, a shaky voice, hand tremors or muscle spasms and jumpiness are common behavioural responses to stress. (Grivas 2004, p.152)Behaviour ModificationBehaviour modification involves the systematic application of learning principles to 'modify', or change, a person's 'behaviour', especially problem behaviour. Various therapies that are based on operant (and classical) conditioning principles are usually grouped under the label of behaviour modification, or behaviour therapy, when used in a mental health setting. (Grivas, p.487)Behaviour modification is used to treating problems such as phobias, childhood misbehaviours and eating disorders.
BehaviourismJohn B. Watson developed behaviourism. In an...