Essay by 212575High School, 12th gradeA, November 2014

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Shallice and Warrington reported the case study of K.F. who as a result of an accident had a reduced STM of only one or two digits and a recency effect of one item. Yet his LTM for events after the accident was normal, supporting the idea of separate short and long-term stores.


Baddeley and Hitch proposed the Working Memory Model (WMM), the basis of their model was that the STM was not just one single store but in fact is made up of several components. The first element to their model is the central executive (CE), which coordinates all the information the memory working memory system, receives. It decides where to send incoming information, which is received from the senses or the LTM and has to do this efficiently as it has limited capacity. There are three slave systems, which operate under the CE, one of which is the Phonological Loop (PL).

The PL stores any information, which the individual hears, like an inner ear, and uses the inner voice to silently repeat the information the individual has heard or seen (maintenance rehearsal). Another slave system is the visuo-spatial sketchpad, which is used for planning spatial tasks and temporarily storing visual or spatial information. The final slave system is the episodic buffer Information from the CE and the LTM can be stored in the episodic buffer to create a complete memory, which can then be transferred to the LTM for more permanent storage.


Clarke Stewart et al studied 150 children and found that those in day care were more advanced in their social development than children who stayed at home. They were more advanced in social development, independence and social interactions with peers. Field also found that...