Public Health Approaches on MSM
There is approximately 2% of the US population considered as gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). However, they are the group that is most severely affected by HIV and are the only risk group in which new HIV infections have been increasing steadily since the early 1990s. There have been several public health approaches such as individual-level, group-level, and community-level interventions in various aspects in order to reduce the HIV infection rate in this risk group. Some have proved to be effective while some have failed. However, they have become some helpful references or foundations on which the future intervention effort can be based to produce more success. (Herbst, 2007)
Firstly, interventions delivered at the individual level aim to assist in individual behavior change one at a time (either in person or online). It is done by modifying individual's attitude, belief, motivation, motion, feeling, and self-efficacy and educating about HIV/AIDS.
Thus, Individual level interventions (ILI) consist of health education and risk-reduction counseling (Herbst, 2007). These interventions also encourage services in both clinic and community-based settings. In order to be successful, individual level interventions should help change one's individual behavior who is at risk for HIV infection or transmitting HIV. It is very important for the success of the program that individuals need to complete the certain amount of participations. This can be very challenging because some of the target populations choose to remain indivisible. Also, individuals getting accessed to needed services such as HIV counseling or testing is another measure of success. There are two program performance indicators that are used to evaluate the individual level interventions. First, the number of persons participated in the program. Lastly,
the proportion of the intended number of the target population...