Census - this is when the entire population of interest is surveyed for the purpose of data analysis.
A census is appropriate when:
1) The population of interest is small, for example, a satisfaction survey for a new course (as the class is a relatively small number of people all can be surveyed).
2) The relevant data for the entire population is readily available, for example government statistics, which draw on census data.
Q 2. For each of the following sampling techniques illustrate a business example where it could be used, fully explain why the particular technique would be suitable in each case.
i. Simple random sampling;
Ans. Samples selected form the population using some random process. Every member of the population has the same chance of being selected. This is only a viable method when a sample frame is available. For example, the CIE travel company has, in the past, sent out surveys asking people questions about the amount of travelling they do on a regular basis, the sample for this survey was selected at random from all those on the electoral role.
ii. Stratified sampling;
Ans. Population is broken into strata, e.g. age, or size of company and then a random sample is taken from each strata. Mori MRC conducted a survey for a software firm to evaluate the performance of an accounting package. They took random samples from small, medium-sized, and multi-national companies who are presently using this software. This enabled them to see what adjustments were needed to cater for their clients in each of these strata.
iii. Cluster sampling;
Ans. Cluster sampling is where the researcher first identifies large clusters of people, like a whole village or district, and then samples people within these clusters. For example when Guinness produced their beer Breo...