The relationship between the development of the Enlightenment Period and the Scientific Revolution was that the Scientific Revolution was an aspect of the Enlightenment on a whole. The Scientific Revolution helped in the process of the Enlightenment by bringing new advances in areas such as Nicolas Copernicus and his new theory that would soon discarded the old geocentric theory that placed the Earth at the center of the solar system and replaced it with a heliocentric theory in which the Earth was simply one of a number of planets orbiting the sun. Another great advancement during the Scientific Revolution was in the field of astronomy. Johannes Kepler proved the orbits of the planets were elliptical, but was unable to come up with an effective model of the solar system. That was left to Galileo, who in 1630 published his Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World, in which he supported the Copernican, or heliocentric theory of the universe, and denounced the Aristotelian system, which maintained the geocentric theory.
Galileo supported his claims with elaborate evidence derived from the study of physics. Also the achievements made in mathematics and physics were revolutionary. In the form of the development of algebra, trigonometry, the advance of geometry and the linkage of form and motion with quantifiable numeric values undertaken by Rene Descartes. Armed with these tools, the science of physics began to advance rapidly. The primary concepts changing social mores marked the beginning of the Enlightenment, as individualism, which stressed the importance of the individual and his rights as a citizen. Relativism, which was the concept that different ideas, cultures, beliefs, and value systems had equal merit. And rationalism, which was the conviction that using the power of reason, humans could arrive at truth and make progress toward improving human life.