According to Johns and Saks (2001), "Leadership is the influence that particular individual exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. In theory, any member of an organization can exert influence on another, but some members are in a better position than others" (p. 272). Furthermore, formal leadership is no guarantee that there is leadership, because some managers and supervisors fail to exert influence on others, but these leaders can therefore be termed as ineffective leaders. Therefore, leadership is not limited to a role, rather leadership skills comes from within.
The Relevance of Understanding Pseudo- Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders set challenging expectations and enable others to achieve higher levels of performance. Bass (1985) depicted transformational leadership as comprising of four distinct factors: charisma, inspiration, individual consideration and intellectual stimulation (p. 178).
A basic premise of this "full range" leadership model (Avolio & Bass, 1989, p.
163) is that transformational leadership is not viewed as opposite ends of a continuum. The same leader can display each of the full range of behaviors or styles (i.e. transactional, transformational and even laissez-faire). Thus, transformational leadership does not replace transactional leadership but adds to it by encouraging followers and colleagues to put in the extra effort. A recent analysis illustrates that all components of transformational leadership behaviors are strongly correlated to both objective and subjective measures of performance (Avolio & Bass, 1989, p. 163).
Many leaders walk a fine line of moral goodness. In their efforts to accent the positive, to make inspiring appeals, to maintain the enthusiasm and morale of followers, they may be manipulative. They will withhold the release of information. Or they will time its release for when it will do the most good. They will give the appearance of confidence even when they...