Research involves two steps: Generating scientific hypothesis & testing hypohtesis.
Hypothesis: a statement that can be tested - about the topic of interest
Eg: Adolescents tend to be more moodier than children or adults
How to generate hypothesis: by general observation
It also helps to be very familiar with the relevant scientific literature
Literature: previously published books and articles about the topic of interest
Often the most imp source of SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES, is SCIENTIFIC THEORY - an interrelated set of propositions about a particular phenomenon
Example of hypothesis
Hypothesis: sexual orientation may depend on GENETIC PREDISPOSITION toward heterosexuality or homosexuality
This leads to testable scientific hypothesis that Pairs of Identical twins who have identical genes- should be more likely to have same sexual orientation than pairs of Fraternal twins, who share only about HALF their genes
A competing theory emphasizes CHILDHOOD EVENTS as the source of individual's sexual orientation.....
....and generate a competing set of hypotheses that can also be tested
Competing hypothesis is important to advance our scientific knowledge
Scientific means "the research METHOD used to collect the data are:
* Unbiased (do not favor one hypothesis over another)
* Reliable (other qualified people can repeat the observation and obtain the same result).
We discuss two methods Quantitative and Qualitative.
Most powerful scientific method:
They provide the strongest tests of hypotheses about CAUSE & EFFECTS
The investigator carefully CONTROLS conditions - often in a laboratory - and takes MEASUREMENTS in order to discover CASUAL RELATIONSHIPS among VARIABLES
For Eg: the hypothesis is that individuals perform better on a math performance if they are offered more money for good performance
The experimenter might randomly assign participants to one of the three conditions: Group A: $10, Group B:$5 Group C:...