Procrastination is the needless delay of tasks resulting in subjective discomfort. It is caused by a number of factors both internal and external in nature, ranging from depression to having a large number of siblings. To combat procrastination, participants were given a timesheet of activities they were required to do in order to achieve a goal. Failure to complete the required work was to be punished with a series self-imposed consequences that increased in aversiveness as the due date of the task came closer. In addition, participants followed a regimen of Progressive Relaxation Techniques to reduce procrastination-associated stress. Results showed that such a self-implemented improvement strategy is beneficial in reducing a student's procrastination based work schedule.
Review and Testing of the Practical Procrastination Reduction Techniques
Procrastination is everywhere. Anyone who thinks they alone suffer from procrastination is sadly mistaken as estimates indicate that 80% to 95% of college students procrastinate, 75% see themselves as procrastinators, and 47% procrastinate consistently and problematically (Ellis & Knaus, 1977).
What is worse is that procrastination has been increasing over time and is predicted to continue doing so (Kachgal, Hansen, & Nutter, 2001).
Procrastination continues to exist in our lives despite 65% of self-reported procrastinators saying they recognized their procrastination and desired change (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). Justifying this viewpoint, studies have correlated procrastination with not only academic failure, but health problems as well. Procrastination has been linked with depression, irrational behavior, low self-esteem, anxiety, and poor study habits (Solomon and Rothblum, 1984; Spada, Hiou, & Nikcevic, 2006). Procrastinators have significantly higher stress levels during exam periods (Ferrari & Tice, 2000). Flett, Blankstein, Hewitt, and Koledin, (1992) also found that high levels of procrastination are directly correlated with amount of perceived stress, negative life events, and daily troubles. Chronic procrastinators, as...