Romanticism was a period of freedom and expression. The movement started in the early 1700s and died down in the mid 1880s. It originated in Germany and England then spread to other European countries. Some of the romanticism periods' goals were to oppose rationalism and social conventions. People discovered the natural beauty of things and the natural man. People had a great interest in mystical, medieval and oriental themes. Music was a huge change during this time period with all of the different composers who started writing more passionate and compelling music.
During the time period art, literature, and music was moving into a whole new direction of emotion. Composers were using their innermost deep thoughts and putting them into their masterpieces. Love was a very strong topic for composing but so wasn't hate or negative feelings. A lot of composers took interest in art and literature for their music.
Some of them wrote about the planets, far away lands, dreams, fairytales, the supernatural, and magic. Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner, and Chopin were all famous composers of the romantic music time period. Beethoven is probably the most recognizable out of all of them yet wasn't as much a romantic musician but more of a classical composer. Still some of Beethoven's finest work can instill a dreamy atmosphere when listened to which is the main concept of romantic period music.
During the romanticism time period the size of the orchestra changed dramatically. The tuba was added to the brass section, and most brass instruments were given valves for more flexibility in the pitch. The valves added a lot more brass instruments to the orchestra making it much larger. The composers wrote pieces for woodwind instruments with multiple parts. Also the piccolo, the bass clarinet, and the double bassoon were added.