The Shang Dynasty
The Shang culture had an organized system of government, a consistent set of religious beliefs and a form of social structure and economy. Evidence, both primary and secondary can be used to prove that these forms of society existed throughout the culture by drawing conclusions through speculation and inferences.
The Shang culture must have had an organized government to hold it together. The dynasty was large. It consisted of many towns and villages scattered around the surrounding areas. There is evidence of agricultural work, as agricultural implements have been found, yet the large towns and evidence such as bronze and jade work also suggests skilled labor, and some form of organized society and economy. The large amount of cowrie shells found in towns could even be a form of currency. Some form of government system would have been established to control the economy, especially because of the different types of work, and to establish authority over the Shang people as they lived in separate towns or villages.
A plot of land was found surrounded by large buildings. This could be government buildings and meeting places.
The Shang seemed to have some sort of religious beliefs though it was more ritualistic than organized. Sacrificial cups and executioner's axes, and mass gravesites infer that they had ritual human sacrifice. Graves with unusual contents such as the chariot driver with his horses is evidence of ritualistic burial, and the tortoise shell with questions on it suggests some mystic belief in the power of animals, or turtles. These beliefs seem to be consistent throughout the whole dynasty.
The Shang economy seems to have some structure, but not a strong one. Large towns and small villages point to a division of agriculturally and technically based areas. They had developed bronze working,