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Social exclusionIntroductionSocial exclusion has a negative impact on the well-being of the concerned population, and is regarded as an alternative conceptualization of poverty. Social exclusion has four dimensions: economic, political, social relations, and welfare exclusion. Elderly people are amongst the most vulnerable groups for being socially excluded. Social Exclusion is a multifaceted and multi-dimensional development. It involves the lack or refutation of resources' rights' commodities and services' and the incapability to contribute in the ordinary relationships and activities accessible to the preponderance of people in the social order' whether in financial' social' cultural or political arenas. It affects both the excellence of life of individuals and the evenhandedness and consistency of society as a whole.' (Hobcraft, J., and Kiernan 1999)A crucial aspect of current academic and public debates about social exclusion concerns the integration of new minority racial and ethnic communities in wider British society. The interest in this process is increasingly being expressed in terms of the amount and quality of social capital that these minorities are said to possess and use: some groups are presumed to have high levels of social capital, whilst others are said to have too little, the 'wrong' kinds or none at all.

The questions which arise from this concern are not, however, new to students of trends in public policy or in academic social studies over the past four or so decades. (Morris 2005) A necessary starting point, however, is the general context in which such debates have taken, and are taking, place in the post-imperial socio-political order emerging in Britain. The context There are two closely related general points regarding the context of these debates to be taken into consideration. These are, first, the range of categories of people involved, and second, an indication of what may be meant by the various...