Social Studies Notes for 8th graders, vocabulary, Civil War, inventions, and more!

Essay by annoyinlildevil7Junior High, 8th grade May 2003

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Lesson 1

1. gauge- width of a train track

2. network- system of connected railroad lines

3. consolidate- combine

4. rebate- discount

5. pool- system in which several railroad companies agreed to divide up the buisness in an area

Lesson 2

1. Bessemer process- method developed in the 1850s to produce

strongersteel at a lower cost.

2. vertical integration- practice in which a single manufacturer controls

all of the steps used to change raw materials into

finished products.

3. corporation- business that is owned by investors.

4. stock- share of ownership in a corporation.

5. dividend- share of a corporation's profit.

6. trust- group of corporations run by a single board of directors.

7. monopoly- a company or group having control of all or nearly all of the

business of an industry.

8. free enterprise system- economic system in which businesses are

owned by private citizens who decide what to

produce, how much to produce, and what

prices to charge

9. Sherman Antitrust Act- an 1890 law that banned the formation of

trusts and monopolies in the United States

Lesson 3

1. patent- license for a new invention

2. transatlantic- crossing or spanning the Atlantic Ocean.

3. moving assembly line- method of production by which workers stay in

one place as products travel past on a moving


4. mass production- process of making large quantities of a product

quickly and cheaply.

Lesson 4

1. sweatshop- workplace where people labor long hours in poor

conditions for low pay.

2. Knights of Labor- an American labor organization founded in 1869 to

protect the rights of workers.

3. strikebreaker- replacement for a striking worker

4. anarchist- person wjo opposes organized government

5. Haymarket Riot- labor rally in chicago in 1886 that ended in violence

when a bomb exploded

6. AFL- (...