Essay by nwonknuA-, September 2004

download word file, 2 pages 4.4

Downloaded 49 times

The term socialisation can be used in describing the process of the State taking over services, industry and other institutions of a society for the benefit of it's members. However, in our context socialisation is, "The process by which an individual acquires the knowledge appropriate to a given society" (Peterson, C., p 373). Through socialisation, the individual becomes integrated into, and behaves adaptively within a society, wether a social, cultural, governmental or organisational society. Reber (1995, p. 732), defines socialisation as "the process whereby an individual acquires the knowledge, values, facility with language, social skills and social sensitivity." The individual doesn't become a generic social being, but a certain type of social being as a specific identity emerges from the infinite number of possible personalities. Socialisation is a lifelong experience and the term applies uniformly across all ages. Two examples of main theorists of socialisation theory are Talcott Parsons (1902 - 1979), and Robert Merton (1957).

Socialisation can be divided into two main headings, Primary and Secondary Socialisation.

Primary Socialisation involves society imprinting on the infant and child, thinking, language, perceptions, moral standards, attitudes, aspirations and roles such as wife or teacher. It also dictates learning, how to control feelings such as shame or guilt, and playing out roles within a context. For example, "taking it like a man".

Secondary Socialisation is said to be the lifelong continuation and adaptation of the primary process for example, working, going to church or, attending school.

Socialisation varies from culture to culture. An example of cultural socialisation in action is in a society that values conformity and obedience from the individual such as in Japan, China or Vietnam. Whereas, countries such as the United States, or ours places more value in the individual.

Although it allows for some people to be different,