This work examines the above mentioned hypothesis and explores, within the context of the research carried out in the field, the socio-economic factors that influence the attainment of children at schools. It begins by exploring the role intelligence plays in a pupils success. It then states the debate in the discipline over schooling. Through examples it illustrates the argument in affirmative of the hypothesis. Having mentioned the major factors that affect the performance of a child it concludes that it is undoubtedly the case that the socio-economic factors within the education system do influence the attainment of a student.
Charles Murray argues that 'genetic intellectual potential determines performance in school'. This was said to be because, 'the lower-class people generally have lower genetic intellectual abilities'. It seemed a common sense because if education was about acquiring the knowledge, job skills, cultured norms and values then surely intelligence should have the potential to divide a group of students according to the 'strength of their brains'.
This indicated that the intelligence of a child plays key role in determining his or her place in the society.
There however, seems a little doubt amongst sociologists in the fact that the achievement of an individual does not rely only upon his or her intelligence. The circumstances around a student also play a significant role in deciding his or her fate. Intelligence in itself can not remain immune from surrounding factors. Crosland acknowledged in what he called 'the strong version' of the concept of equality that 'the measured intelligence is affected by such factors as environment, poverty and parental education'.
Crosland recommended that 'every child should have the same opportunity for acquiring measured intelligence, so far as this can be controlled by social action'. Two years later the secretary of State for Education,