sport and race SPORT AND RACE 1. Introduction 2. Concept of Race 3. Race Ideology and History and Sport 4. Race Logic in Sport: Recent Examples 5. Australia and its native people 6. Sport and Australian aborigines 7. Types of Racism 8. Mechanism of Dealing with Racism 9. Stacking 10. International Examples 11. Rugby League Example 12. Rationale for Stacking (1) Biological (2) Psychological (3) Sociological.
13. Summary CONCEPT OF RACE The point I want to stress is that the classification systems used to divide all human beings into various racial categories are grounded in social meanings and social definitions; they are not based on objective biological factors. Firstly, the concept of race is historically and culturally dependant. Historically, it was never used prior to the 1700s. Secondly, it varies across cultures - a black in America would be defined as whites in Africa for example. Thirdly and what I will discuss in more detail is that in a biological sense the concept of race is so confusing that it is meaningless.
People have attempted to do this according to mental characteristics, brain size, skin colour, stature and nose shape. These are all continuous traits (everyone has some) this leads to confusion.
SKIN EXAMPLE Skin colour varies form snow white to midnight black. The trick is determining where you draw the line to distinguish one racial group from another. You could draw 2 lines or 2000 lines; there are no absolute biological rules. These decisions are social ones (people draw them in different places) not biological ones.
This is why nearly all scientists have abandoned the search for a biology-based racial classification system. It is much easier to think of one race: the human race; it contains combinations of changing physical similarities and differences, and meanings given to those similarities...