Throughout the vastness of various Muslim empires, Muslims were able to successfully rule very diverse populations and contribute to cultural innovation and trade. Many factors helped them during their rule, such as their geography, development of law, and preservation of Greek and Roman culture. The Arabs were the first to rule for the Muslims, they were highly religious and followed Muhammad. They later fell to the Umayyad, who stressed the political aspect of their office, instead of religious. They, in turn, fell to the Abbasids. The Abbasids established diversity in their rule. During these periods of rule, many achievements were made in the fields of Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography, Chemistry, Medicine, Art, Architecture, Literature, Philosophy, and History. Many of these were made in the House of Wisdom, which was a research center established by the Abbasids. These new ideas and laws were spread throughout the culture of Islam.
The Diverse populations of the Muslims were successful because the Muslims gave an equal part of their culture to everyone.
Persians were the dominant group in the government bureaucracy, while Turks were the leading group in the army. Arabs continued to control religious life and administration of law. Also, 1.5 million people populated the main city Baghdad. It lay at the crossroads of the land and water trade routes. This brought in many Muslims from outside cities and countries to become part of the equality shared in the Muslim's diverse population.
Muslims were also very successful at trade because of many reasons.
One reason was their geographic placement. The Muslim civilization was based in Arabia, which is a connection point between Africa, Asia, and Europe. It is also surrounded by the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Mediterranean Sea. This enabled Muslims to trade across the waters to many other countries...