Wars are often very complex in nature and are fought for many diverse
reasons. The school boy may fight in order to get money for college, the patriot may fight to bring life, liberty and justice to some poor soul, and a coward may fight because he was drafted by force. In the Iliad, powerful gods, great nations, and heroic people all fight for many different reasons. This wide variety of fighting results in unique situations, problems, and structural levels to the war. These structural levels are of special interest, because they help define the consequences and outcomes of the war. The universal war of the gods, social war of the Greeks and Trojans, and the private war of Achilles' honor are structural levels of the Trojan war. These structural levels seem to influence and shape each other in many distinct ways.
The universal war between the gods over the apple of discord consequently lead to the social war between the Greeks and the Trojans.
For example, Aphrodite promised Paris that he could have the most beautiful woman in the world if he gave the apple of discord to her. He did so, and decided to go and get his reward. Unfortunately, the most beautiful women in the world, Helen, was the wife of the Greek King Menelaus. The abduction of Helen by Paris lead to the Trojan war. The promise made by Aphrodite to Paris in order to get the apple of discord resulted in the abduction of Helen and the start of the Trojan war. Therefore, Aphrodite, in the universal war, set the stage for the social war of the Greeks and Trojans. Another time the gods influenced the social war was when the Greeks and Trojans had a one on one battle to decide...