D.N.A. and Protein Synthesis.
Every living thing is made up of cells. Every cell has a nucleus, and in every nucleus there are chromosomes. In a Human being there are 46 chromosomes, or 23 chromosome pairs. These chromosomes are very long compact coils of D.N.A. (DeoxyriboNuclic Acid). D.N.A is a thread formed by two strands, wound together to form a Double Helix. These D.N.A. store all
the information that your body needs such as how you look, and how you function. On average, these strands are 40cm long! One section of this Double Helix is called a gene. There are hundreds of genes in one chromosome. These genes contain the recipes, for proteins that make up most of your body. Structural proteins form skin, hair, and muscle. Most processes in your
body are carried out by proteins called enzymes.
The Double Helix is a truly amazing structure. The double Helix looks like a twisted ladder.
The "sides" of this "ladder" are made of sugar and phosphate. The "rungs" of this "ladder" are attached to the sugar on each side. Each rung is made up of either Adenine (A) and Thymine (T) or Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G). Adenine can only join with Thymine, and Cytosine can only join with Guanine.
The whole structure of D.N.A. is made up of four building blocks. These blocks are called Nucleotides.
This is the pattern for the four building blocks. The base can be replaced with Guanine, Adenine, Thymine, or Cytosine.
Ten pairs of these nucleotides make one complete twist of the Double Helix. A single D.N.A. could have 3 billion pairs of these building blocks!
The information that these genes have is the recipe for proteins. These Genes also have a "control panel" so that they know where...