AP Probability & Statistics Study Guide for Ch. 1 and Ch. 2 (Date: 10/12/14)

**Index:**

IndexÃ¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦...1

Some DefinitionsÃ¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦.............2

Box PlotsÃ¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦5

Normal Probability DistributionsÃ¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦.8

Misc. (A.K.A. Not in PPT I Found)Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦...Ã¢ÂÂ¦..Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦Ã¢ÂÂ¦..10

**Some Definitions:**

**Population** - the complete collection of all elements (scores, people measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied

Parameter - a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a *population*

**Census** - the collection of data from *every* member of the population

**Sample** - a sub-collection of elements drawn from a population

**Statistic** - a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

**Random sample** - members of the population are selected in such a way that each individual member has an equal chance of being selected

**Simple random sample (of size n)** - subjects selected in such a way that every possible sample of same size

*n*has the same chance of being chosen

**Systematic sampling** - select some starting point and then select every Kth element in the population

**Convenience sampling** - use results that are easy to get

**Stratified sampling** - subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups that share the same characteristics, then draw a sample from each subgroup or stratum

**Cluster sampling** - divide the population into sections (or clusters); randomly select some of those clusters; choose *all* members from selected clusters

**Observational study** - observing and measuring specific characteristics without attempting to modify the subject being studied

**Sampling error** - the difference between s ample result and the true population result; such an error results from chance sample fluctuations

**Nonsampling error** - sample data that are incorrectly collected, recorded, or analyzed (such as by selecting a biased sample, using a defective instrument or copying the data...