CHAP 15 THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE
*Rationalist ideas overpowered Calvinist tradition ie Thomas Paine's book The Age of Reason 1974 declared that all churches were set up to enslave mankind and monopolize power and profit
*Anticlericalism was rare however many Founding Fathers embraced the deism doctrines that relied on reason rather than religion and rejected the concept of original sin and Christ's divinity. deists believed in a Supreme being who had created the universe and endowed humans with a soul
*Deism help inspire the Unitarian faith. They believed that god existed in only 1 person. Not the holy ghost etc. they denied the deity of Jesus and stressed that man was truly good and believed in free will, the possibility of salvation thru good works. The Unitarian movement mainly appealed to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism contrasted w/ hellfire doctrines of Calvinism
*Second Great Awakening: reaction against reason b4 religion.
This resulted in the end for old churches and the construction for new ones. New sects were produced. It encouraged evangelicalism which caused several reforms such as the temperance, the women's movement etc
*It was spread thru mass camp meetings on the frontier. These revivals boosted church membership and stimulated a variety of humanitarian reforms.
*Methodists and Baptists gained the most converters. Both sects stressed personal conversion contrary 2 predestination
*Peter Cartwright: 1752-1872 converted thousands, he was ruff punched rowdies who tried to break up his meetings.
*Charles Grandison Finney: greatest revival preacher he was trained as a lawyer. He led revivals in Rochester and NYC in 1830 and 1831. he devised the "anxious bench" this is where sinners could sit in full view of the congregation and he encouraged women to pray aloud in public. he promised a perfect Christian kingdom on earth...