Study notes human nutrition

Essay by nottegattoCollege, UndergraduateA+, August 2008

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Basic Principles of Digestion and Absorption•Explain the functions of the major organs involved in the digestion and absorption of foods.

•Summarize the recommended daily intake amounts for each level of the food guide pyramid.

Key concepts for Week One which instructors will address and for which students will be held responsible:1.Major organs of digestion and absorption (see diagram p. 87 in Wardlaw 6th ed)a.What are the organs, where are they, and what are their roles?b.Organs used for digestion1)Mouth- first stop on digestive pathway2)Teeth - begin to break the food into smaller pieces so that many sides of the food are exposed to digestive juices3)Tongue - helps move the food around in the mouth and propels it to the esophagus4)Epiglottis - the flap of tissue that closes the airway as one swallows food5)Salivary glandsa)Produce and store digestive juices until they are needed for digestionb)Found in the mouthc)Begin to digest starchesd)Found in the stomach lininge)Begin to digest protein6)Esophagusa)Tube-like organ that connects mouth and stomachb)Propels food7)Stomacha)Pouch that holds food while digestion continuesb)Has multiple muscle layers that churn food from many directions8)Liver - produces bile that is used in the digestion of fat9)Gall bladder - stores bile produced in liver until it is needed for digestion; dumps the stored bile into the small intestine10)Pancreasa)Abdominal organ that produces a variety of digestive juicesb)Insulin for carbohydrate digestionc)Pancreatic enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins and fats11)Duodenuma)First segment of intestineb)Propels food from stomach to small intestine12)Small intestinea)Continues digestive processb)Will increase absorption of food into the blood and lymphatic systems13)Large intestinea)Last segment of intestinal tractb)Stores the undigested waste productsc)Dehydrates the waste productd)Forms it for excretion14)Rectum - stores formed waste material until expulsion15)Anusa)Last stop in digestive tractb)Expels waste material2.

Major categories of food (More detail in Week 2 Content Notes)a. Food Guide Pyramid ( Food pyramid from...