Study Outline Jotes for Chapter 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought

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Chapter 24- The Birth of Modern European Thought-Like previous intellectual changes, arose from earlier patterns of thought.

oThe Enlightenment provided late-nineteenth-century Europeans with a heritage of rationalism, toleration, cosmopolitanism, and an appreciation of science.

oRomantic ideals provided a value of feelings, imagination, national identity, and the autonomy of the artistic experience.

-The New Reading PublicoAdvances in Primary educationGovernments financed educationBritain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia had reading population of 85% or moreItaly Spain Russia Austria-Hungary and Balkans still had illiteracy rates of 30-60%“Right Knowledge would lead to right action”• Orderly political behavior•More productive labor forceTeaching became growing working force for womenoReading Material for the Mass AudienceNewspaper, book, magazines, mail-order catalogs, and libraries grew rapidlyAdvertising produced consumerismSpecialized political or religious viewpoints•People could read about their own ideals•Crime, political scandal, and advertising; sometimes pornography•News managed-censored by government in Central EuropeLiteracy led to other skills and knowledge-Science at Mid-centuryoPhysical world: rational, mechanical, dependableoComte, Positivism, and the Prestige of ScienceFrench philosopher Auguste Comte, follower of Saint-SimonPositivism•A philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science•The Positive PhilosophyoHuman thought developed in three stagesoTheological- physical nature explained in terms of spiritsoMetaphysical- abstract principles regarded as the operative agencies of natureoPositive stage- explanations of nature became matters of exact description of phenomenaFather of sociology•All knowledge must resemble scientific knowledgeThomas Huxley (Britain) Ernst Haeckel (Germany)•Worked to gain government support of scientific research and to include science in schooloDarwin’s Theory of Natural SelectionOn the Origin of Species•Mechanical interpretation of physical nature into the world of living things•“Newton of Biology”•Formulated principle of natural selection, did NOT originate concept of evolutionoExplained HOW species evolved overtimeoAlfred Russel Wallace also did so, independent of DarwinTwo concluded:•More organisms come into existence than can survive in their environment•Organisms with an advantage live long enough to propagate•Survival of the fittest = natural selectionoNaturalistic and...