Summaries

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Summary of "˜Creole' Despite the national authenticity that are revealed by the characteristics of creole languages, negative attitudes regarding the sounds, the grammatical features, and the social origin of the speakers contribute to attach a persistent stigma to these recently formed languages. Pejorative terms are used by people of various backgrounds - whether they are educated professionals of linguistics, or native speakers from the lower class "" as descriptions of Creole languages.

Summary of "˜Heterosexuality"� In a heterosexual system, sex/gender dimorphism is shaped by the design of social practices, norms, as well as economic and legal arrangements. Heterosexual couples are considered a normal, natural arrangement as heterosexual concepts are continually introduced to people of all ages in their daily lives. These heterosexual couples, being treated as a single unit, are granted social-politico-legal standing and privileges that the lesbians and gay men, who are subject to discrimination, fail to enjoy.

Summarizing narratives: "˜Alert Bay' AW47-52 The first half of the nineteenth century since the European's arrival witnessed the growth and prosperity of the Kwakwaka'wakw's society brought by the development of fur trade and access of European goods and the change in the aboriginal culture as capitalism and class stratification prevailed. Mutual interests were satisfied through the trade while Native people were able to maintain control and power by means of various strategies to manage the flows of trade goods. Conflicts and tension began to build up after the establishments of European permanent settlement, which contributed to the decline of the fur trade and the tragic depopulation of the indigenous people as a result of epidemic diseases brought by the Europeans. Aboriginals, being dependent on the Europeans' medical support, saw the annexation of their territories and power with ambivalence.