The Supreme Court of the United States is at the apex of the United States judicial system. Ever since its creation, it has affirmed and interpreted the facts within the Constitution. The Court's decisions have greatly affected society. Four major cases which have had cataclysmic effects on society are Veronia vs. Acton (1995), Planned Parenthood vs. Casey (1992), Lee vs. Weisman (1991), and United States vs. Lopez (1995).
The case of Veronia vs. Acton dealt with the issues of search and seizure, and student's rights. During the 1980s, drug use was rampant. Many people believed that athletes were deeply involved in the drug culture and that this involvement increased risk for sports injuries. The school district responded, at first, with classes about drugs, guest speakers, and special presentations. After these efforts failed the school district established a policy that called for a student-athlete to sign a form consenting to drug testing before the start of the season.
If a student failed the test the first time, he/she would take it again to confirm the result. If the second test was positive, the athlete's parents were notified, and they had to meet with the principal. The student had the option of entering a drug program for six weeks and giving a weekly urine sample, or being suspended for the remainder of the current season and next season. The respondent Wayne Acton, entering as a 7th grader, refused to sign a consent form to allow him to be subjected to a drug test. The parents filed a suit seeking declaratory and injunctive relief on the grounds that the policy violated the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution as well as in the Oregon Constitution. The district court entered an order denying the claims on the merits and dismissing the action.