Sun Yat-sen, named Sun Zhong-shan or Sun Wen, was born in an ordinary peasant's family in Cuiheng Village on November 12, 1866.when he was ten years old, Sun Yat-sen attended an oldstyle private school in Cuiheng Village. At the age of twelve, he went to Honolulu to study and returned to China at ate age of seventeen. Sun married Lu Mu-Zhen in 1884. From 1886 to 1892, Sun Yat-sen studied medicine in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and practiced medicine in Macao, Guangzhou after graduation. Mean while he also devoted himself to politics.
Because he thought the Qing government was greatly corrupt and China was in a crisis, in 1894 Sun Yat-sen submitted a memorial to Li Hong-zhang a top official of the Qing government at that time, to demand China's total reform. His memorial however, was rejected. Later Sun moved to Honolulu and established this Xing Zhong Hui (Society for the Revival of China).
The Xing Zhong Hui outlined it's programmed as:" the expulsion of the Manchus, reveal of China, establishment of people's government."
In 1905, Dr. Sun united the other revolutionary bodies in existence and formed in Tokyo a new organization under the name of Tong Meng Hui (Revolutionary league). It was here that Dr. Sun Yat-sen formulated his political thought, the "Three People's Principles -- the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of People's livelihood." He had sharp debates with the monarchists on such issues as to what political system China should adopt and what road China should take. From 1895-1911, Sun Yat-sen staged several armed struggles against the Qing government, but failed. Though he met with repeated failures, he was still quite optimistic about the revolution. On October 10, 1911, a named uprising broke out in Wuchang. The revolt quickly spread to other provinces of the country.