Tammy W. Eason
Axia College of University of Phoenix
The effect of taxation and price controls on the economy range from the curtailment of the supply of goods to an increase in costs. When there is a tax impose on goods like tobacco or cigarette as described in the two articles, there is an increase in the price of the product, this shifts the supply curve of the product to the left, in other words less quantity is available at the same prices, there is a decline in the quantity demanded and a new equilibrium between demand and supply is reached. On the other hands when price controls are imposed there is an artificial decline in the prices.
At the lower prices, a higher quantity is demanded but the production is insufficient to fulfill that demand and so a shortage remain. There are stock outs. So in case of imposition of taxes as has been done in case of cigarettes, there is excess production capacity and the factors of production have to be diverted to other industries or sectors.
Alternately, the production can be exported.
The intended effect is that the incidence of smoking gets reduced. The tax is levied on the consumers. This is the reason why the proposed tax of $1 will increase the price of a cigarette pack by $1. For administrative reasons the tax may be collected from the producers, however, this tax is clearly on the consumers. The tax will affect the demand for cigarettes. It has been shown through several empirical studies that imposition of taxes leads to a decrease in smoking. Those states that have imposed taxes have witnessed lower levels of smoking and those states that have not imposed steep taxes have witnessed lower levels of reduction in smoking.