The median age of the American workforce is expected to increase to 40.6 years in 2005 compared to 34.3 years in 1980 (Kinicki and Williams, 2003). Age certainly has become more visible within the sport industry, as it not uncommon to see coaches extending their careers past the age to seventy. Joe Paterno walks the football side lines at Penn State in his middle 70s, while Jack McKeon and Felipe Alou recently obtained field-manager positions major League baseball although both are over 65. Then there is John Gagliardi of St. John's University in Collegeville, Minnesota, who recently became the all-time winningest coach in collegiate football at the tender age of 77. While the senior segment is achieving success on the playing field, youth is also fairing well in competitive athletics. Michelle Wie is currently competing on the Ladies' Professional Golf Tour as a fourteen-year-old, and LeBron James has attained superstardom in the NBA prior to adulthood.
Ever since the passage of Title IX in 1972, there has been much debate over the status of gender within the athletic domain. Although competitive opportunities have increased for women since the enactment of this legislation, Lapchick (2003) indicated that women are in the minority when it comes to managerial appointments within the sport industry, even though the percentage of women in the aggregate workface has increased from 27 percent in 1980 to percent in 1994, according to Kinicki and Williams (2003). Despite these Statistics and the presence of title IX, there are also inequities in compensation between male and female executives across wide-ranging industries, including sport. Kinicki and Williams indicated that female executives make 60 cents to every dollar male executives earn. An analysis performed by Lapchick found that salaries of female executives were lower than those of their male counterparts...