The Treaty of Versailles and Its Effects on Europe The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919. This treaty was between Germany and the Allied powers (United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan). There were nine major provisions in the treaty. These nine provisions can be broken-up into four categories: League of Nations, territorial losses, military restrictions, and war guilt.
The first category, League of Nations, had two major provisions. The first provision was an international peace organization. This organization was a membership to include Allied war powers and thirty-two Allied and neutral nations. Germany and Russia were excluded from the League of Nations. Germany was deliberately not included. Russia was excluded due to their early withdrawal in the war and their revolutionary leadership, which made them an outcast.
The next category, territorial losses, also had two major provisions. Germany was forced to return the Alsace-Lorraine back to France; therefore the French boarder now extended to the west bank of the Rhine River.
Germany also had to surrender all of its oversea colonies in Africa and the Pacific.
The third category, military restrictions, had three major provisions. Limits were sent on the size of the German army. Germany was also prohibited from importing or manufacturing weapons or war materials. Lastly, Germany was forbidden to build or buy submarines or have an air force. These provisions were instituted to ensure that Germany would not become too powerful and/or start another war.
The final category, war guilt, had two major provisions. Sole responsibility for starting the war was placed on Germany. Consequently, Germany was forced to pay the Allies $33 billion in reparations over 30 years. Reparation is money paid by a defeated nation to compensate for damage or injury during a war.
While the treaty...