Essay by Vitaly KukshinHigh School, 10th gradeA+, April 1996

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Ukraine - basic facts

Ukraine is a state in Eastern Europe, bounded on the north by Belarus, on the north and east by the Russian Federation, on the

west by Poland, Slovakia, on the southwest by Hungary, Rumania, and Moldova, and on the south by the Black Sea and the

Sea of Azov.

Ukraine includes the Crimean Autonomous Republic, which was elevated from an oblast to a constituent republic in 1991.

Kyiv is the capital and largest city.

Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe after Russia. The total area of Ukraine is 603,700 sq. km (compare the area

of France - 551,000 sq. km; Germany - 356,000; Great Britain - 244,000; Italy - 301,000; Spain - 505,000). The area

spanned in a west-east direction is 1300 km; from north to south - 900 km.

The population of Ukraine is 52 million (Germany - 78 million; France - 56 million; Great Britain - 58 million; Italy - 59 million;

Spain - 40 million).

Ukraine's state border extends for a total of 7698 km: with Russia - 2484 km; Belarus - 952 km; Rumania - 608 km; Poland -

542 km; Slovakia - 98 km; Hungary - 135 km; Moldova - 1194 km. The total length of Ukraine's sea coast is 1758 km

(Black Sea - 1533 km; Sea of Azov - 225 km).

The climate of Ukraine is moderate-continental; in the southernmost region of the Crimea the climate is sub-tropical. The

largest river of Ukraine is the Dnipro, which is 2201 km in length, of which 981 km flow through Ukraine. The largest mountain

system in Ukraine is the Carpathian Mountains that extend for more than 270 km and are 100-110 km wide. The highest peak

is the Hoverla (2061 m).



conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ukraine

local long form: none

local short form: Ukrayina

former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: UP

Type: republic

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalites

(mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi),

Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv),

Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev),

Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Respublika

Krym* (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sevastopol'), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka

(Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)

note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblast' name

Independence: 1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: using 1978 pre-independence constitution; new constitution currently being drafted

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994); election last held 26 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be

held NA 1999); results - Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%, Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%

head of government: Acting Prime Minister Yeuben MARCHUK (since 3 March 1995); First Deputy Prime Ministers

Yevhen MARCHUK and Viktor PYNZENYK (since 31 October 1994) and six deputy prime ministers

cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council

National Security Council: originally created in 1992, but signficantly revamped and strengthened under President

KUCHMA; members include the president, prime minister, Ministers of Finance, Environment, Justice, Internal Affairs,

Foreign Economic Relations, Economic and Foreign Affairs; the NSC staff is tasked with developing national security policy

on domestic and international matters and advising the president

Presidential Administration: helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president

Council of Regions: advisory body created by President KUCHMA in September 1994; includes the Chairmen of Oblast

and Kiev and Sevastopol City Supreme Councils

Legislative branch: unicameral

Supreme Council: elections last held 27 March 1994 with repeat elections continuing through December 1998 to fill empty

seats (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450 total) Communists 91, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18,

Socialists 15, Republicans 11, Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party of Democratic Revival 4, Democrats 2,

Social Democrats 2, Civil Congress 2, Conservative Republicans 1, Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1, Christian

Democrats 1, independents 225; note - 405 deputies have been elected; run-off elections for the remaining 45 seats to be held

by December 1998

Judicial branch: joint commission formed in April 1995 to define a program of judicial reform by year-end

Political parties and leaders: Green Party of Ukraine, Vitaliy KONONOV, leader; Liberal Party of Ukraine; Liberal

Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr KLYMCHUK, chairman; Democratic Party of Ukraine, Volodymyr

Oleksandrovych YAVORIVSKIY, chairman; People's Party of Ukraine, Leopol'd TABURYANSKYY, chairman; Peasants'

Party of Ukraine, Serhiy DOVHRAN', chairman; Party of Democratic Rebirth (Revival) of Ukraine, Volodymyr FILENKO,

chairman; Social Democratic Party of Ukraine, Yuriy VUZDUHAN, chairman; Socialist Party of Ukraine, Oleksandr

MOROZ, chairman; Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party, Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman; Ukrainian Conservative

Republican Party, Stepan KHMARA, chairman; Ukrainian Labor Party, Valentyn LANDYK, chairman; Ukrainian Party of

Justice, Mykhaylo HRECHKO, chairman; Ukrainian Peasants' Democratic Party, Serhiy PLACHINDA, chairman; Ukrainian

Republican Party, Mykhaylo HORYN', chairman; Ukrainian National Conservative Party, Viktor RADIONOV, chairman;

Ukrainian People's Movement for Restructuring (Rukh), Vyacheslav CHORNOVIL, chairman; Ukrainian Communist Party,

Petr SYMONENKO; Agrarian Party; Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists, S. STESTKO; Civil Congress, O. BAZYLUK;

Party of Economic Revival of Crimea; Democratic Party Of Ukraine, Serhiy DOVMAN', chairman

Other political or pressure groups: New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina); Congress of National Democratic Forces

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CEI (associate members), CIS, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC,

ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC,


Diplomatic representation in US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy SHCHERBAK

chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606

FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817

consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York

US diplomatic representation:

chief of mission: Ambassador William Green MILLER

embassy: 10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 252053 Kiev 53

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [7] (044) 244-73-49, 244-37-45

FAX: [7] (044) 244-73-50

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky


Population: 51,867,828 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 21% (female 5,217,850; male 5,407,450)

15-64 years: 65% (female 17,563,924; male 16,334,299)

65 years and over: 14% (female 4,976,893; male 2,367,412) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.31 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.67 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 70.11 years

male: 65.59 years

female: 74.87 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)


noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic divisions: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous

Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)

total population: 98%

male: 100%

female: 97%

Labor force: 23.55 million (January 1994)

by occupation: industry and construction 33%, agriculture and forestry 21%, health, education, and culture 16%, trade and

distribution 7%, transport and communication 7%, other 16% (1992)