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Kristen Miller Ms. Kelly World History-Section 8 4 January 1998 The First Triumvirate and The Second Triumvirate The First Triumvirate and The Second Triumvirate were two very different systems of leadership considering the people that were involved. The people that were each had their own way of ruling, which caused complications and which also caused triumph in certain cases.

The First Triumvirate did not accomplish as much as the Second Triumvirate due to difficulties among each other.

Julius Caesar, an effective speaker joined forces with two other powerful men to create what became the First Triumvirate. The First Triumvirate included Pompey the Great, and Marcus Licinius Crassus, along with Julius Caesar. (Balsdon 75) In seventy one BC Pompey the Great, who had earned his epithet in service under Sulla, returned to Rome, after having defeated the ever so popular general Sertorius in Spain. At the same time Pompey was returning to Rome, Marcus Licinius Crassus, a rich aristocrat, was restrained in Italy.

(White 14) Pompey and Crassus ran for the position of consulship, and since it was a position held by two men they both won. Even though Pompey at this time was ineligible Julius Caesar helped him win. The two consuls were now Pompey and Crassus. (White 15) Caesar was elected quaestor and then in sixty five BC Julius Caesar was elected curule aedile, gaining great popularity for his extravagant gladiatorial games. In order to pay for these games, Caesar borrowed money from Crassus. (Balsdon 81) This united Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus. They also found common cause with Pompey the Great. (Balsdon 81) Caesar governed Spain for about a year, Miller 2 afterwards he returned to Rome. The three men decided to join forces into a three-way alliance, known as the First Triumvirate. (White 22) Caesar was elected consul in fifty nine BC despite optimate bitterness, and that year after he was appointed governor of the Roman Gaul. (Balsdon 95) At this particular time the Celtic Gaul, which was to the north of Rome, was still independent. The Aedui, a tribe of Roman allies, appealed to Caesar for help against another Ballic people, the Helvetii, during this first year of his governship. Caesar marched into the Celtic Gaul with six troops, defeated the Helvetii, and forced them to return to their home area. Next he crushed Germanic forces under Ariovistus. By fifty seven BC, following the defeat of the Nervii, Rome was in charge and had power over northern Gaul. (White 28) At this point in time Rome had immense power, and this also gave Caesar a lot of power. And since he was in a three way alliance, the First Triumvirate, it gave the other two members Pompey and Crassus a lot of power also.

During the time that Caesar was in Gaul, his agents attempted to dominate politics in Rome. This, however, threatened Pompey's position and it became very necessary for the three triumvirs to arrange a meeting in Luca, which brought about a temporary compromise. It was decided at the meeting in Luca that Julius Caesar would continue in Gaul for another five years, while Pompey and Crassus would both be consuls and after that each would have proconsular control of different territory. (White 30) These three men were greedy for power so this made it hard for them to get along. They were so much alike that they would bump heads. And not get along.

Julius Caesar then went off to raid Britian and put down a revolt in Gaul. Crassus however was very eager for military glory. He went down to his post in Syria, provoked a war with the Parthian Empire, was defeated and killed a short period of time after. The Triumvirate was slowly dying. (Balsdon 101) Pompey was in an overpowering position, Miller 3 now that he was sol consul combined with all his other power. (White 36) Pompey was greatly jealous of Caesar's immense power, and he was determined to break the power Caesar held. (White 37) A short time later after trying to break Caesar's power and failing in doing so, Pompey fled to Egypt and later was assassinated (White 40) This was the end of the First Triumvirate, with both Crassus and Pompey dead, this left Julius Caesar, with all the power. However in forty-four BC Caesar was assassinated. (Balsdon 107) This Triumvirate wasn't successful as they would have liked to be. They did defeat certain tribes, crush forces. And they were very intelligent men, but they were power hungry and would go to great extremes for power. Thanks to the Triumvir's Rome had an immense amount of power, but this wasn't enough to be successful. The Triumvirate was productive, but not that successful.

The Second Triumvirate consisted of three more powerful men.

The Second Triumvirate involved Mark Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Aemilis Lepidus. Caesar's assassination plunged Rome into great disturbance. Mark Antony had a few skirmishes, both political and military, which drove him across the Alps. During this time Octavian was made senator then consul. (Balsdon 122). At this time Octavian and Mark Antony were rivals. However, Octavian recognized the necessity of making peace with his rival. Therefore the two men joined forces, also joined by Antony's ally, the general Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. They met and formed the Second Triumvirate to rule the Roman demeans. This alliance was sealed by a massive proscription, in which 300 senators and 200 nights attended, the triumvir's enemies were killed. (Balsdon 125) Octavian and Mark Antony next took the field against the leaders of Caesars assassins. By forty BC the triumvirs had divided the roman world among themselves (Balsdon 126) Miller 4 Octavian controlled most of the western provinces and Antony was in control of most of the eastern ones. Lepidus was given Africa. Octavian and Antony clashed over the control of Italy, but they patched up their differences. Octavian then forced Lepidus from power while Antony was in the east fighting the Parthians. (Balsdon 127) The Triumvirate was now breaking up, having sent Octavian back to Rome. Octavian over threw Mark Antony. Octavin returned to Rome in triumph, he was now the sole master of the Roman world. (Balsdon 131) The Second Triumvirate did not last very long. These three men were also very power hungry. They only cared about themselves, they were all willing to over throw each other at any chance they got. It had no lasting affect on them. The power was all that mattered. This Triumvirate did not get much accomplished, they focused more on hurting each other than helping the Roman world. The men in the First Triumvirate also had their minds focused on power, but they did also look out for the welfare of each other, and the people around them.

The Second Triumvirate was not successful at all, nothing was accomplished basically. And it appears that they had used each other to gain power. It is very clear that the First Triumvirate was the more successful Triumvirate because they were not willing to over throw each other, they got a lot accomplished, and helped Rome a great deal.

It is very obvious because of the way Octavian took over his two fellow triumvirs without even feeling any guilt or sorrow, since they had suppositley had been his friends during the whole ordeal.

Bibliography Balsdon, John The Triumvirs. New York: Atheneum, 1967 White, J.P.V.D Julius Caesar, A Political Biography England:The English Universitie Press, 1982