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Nose- external nares- nostrils divided by nasal septum- internal nares- opening to nasopharynx- hard palate- separates oral/nasal cavities- soft palate- posterior to hard palate- nasal conchae- projections of nasal cavity that cause turbulence in airflow- effects on humidity temp, filtration, olfactory sense- cilia- sweap mucous and trapped particles into pharynx Pharynx- shared chamber- respiratory and digestive nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larynopharynx Larynx- epiglottis- prevents food from entering the glottis- thyroid cartilage- adams apple- ericoid cartilage- posterior support-both protect above Sound- False vc- protect elastic true vocal cords Pitch- length, width, and tension Volume- force of air Aomplification and resonance within pharynx, oral and nasal cavities and sinuses Words- formed by tongue, lips, and cheeks Trachea- windpipe is tough flexible tube supported by 20 trached cart. (C shaped rings open to esophagus) Bronchi- primary secondary tertiary and quaternary and quaternary Bronchioles- sympathetic innervation controls constriction and dilation of bronchioles Alveolar ducts open to alveolar sacs to alveoli made of simple squamous epith.

150 million Alveolar macrophages- engulfing dust and particles- surfactant reduces surface tension within the alveoli to keep them inflated in exhal Squamous epith of a- basement mem- endoth cap Lungs- right 3 lobe left 2 lobe- apex superior, base on diaphram- mediastinal surf cardiac notch Pleural Cavities- parietal pleura (covers rib cage) & visceral pleura (covers lungs) are continuous & separated by pleura- reduce frict.

Step 1- pulmonary ventilation- air into and out Step 2- Gas diffusion across res membrane Step 3- Storage and transport of O and CO2 Step 4- Exchange of O and CO2 between blood Pneumothorax- puncture of pleura lining Quiet breathing- inhalation contraction, ex passive- forced breathing- both inh exh active Tidal volume- amount of air in and out during one cycle- Expiratory reserve volume- voluntarily expelled at end of cycle- Inspiratory Reserve Volume- taken in above the tidal V Vital Capacity=IRV+ERV+TV RV-raminaing air after ERV alveoli no collapse MV- air after pneumothorax Nitrogen 78.6% Oxygen 20.8% water vapor .5% CO2 .04% Parital pressure- porpotion of total atmosph press Determines rate of diffusion PN2+P02+PH20+PCO2=760mg 98.5% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin- lower O content of tissue, increased temp, and decreased pH the more O2 is released by Hb plasma transport- 7% hemoglobin binding- carbaminohemoglobin 23% carbonic acid ormation- sodium bicarbonate- NaHCO3 is formed in plasma 70% rate of cellular exchange=rate of capillary delivery and removal= rate of O2 asorption and CO2 excretion respiratory rate= # breaths per min- medulla oblongata controls RRC- insiratory center(active during quiet)- expiratory center(active only forced breathing)