In order to answer in this question, it is necessary to mention the "golden" era of environmental policy making of 1960s and 1970s as well as the laws and the action of the government. Furthermore, I should examine the legislative branch, the Congress, trying to find out the gridlock in environmental policy making referred the difference between Republicans and Democrats, as well as the structure of Congress, and finally the bureaucratic obstacles in making decision or passing a law. As far as I examine the legislative branch, I should keep a glance in executive branch, the President's actions as well as his role to shape environmental policy, and surely the obstacles that he should deal with, for example the controversy with the Congress. In my analysis, I am going to mention the judicial branch, Court's environmental policy making and the ways it compromises the grid lock in Congress. Courts, no rarely, jump over the gridlock and give solutions.
And finally, I could not oversee the states' action in shaping environmental policy and their efforts to act beyond the gridlock.
Many political and environmental analysts subscribe to the theory that the U.S environmental policymaking has been gridlocked since 1990. There is a widely held belief that the point is that the stalemate is located in law making and not only in policy making. The gridlock in environmental policy making is, we could say, the conclusion of stale mate in law making.
First let us look, that American environmental policymaking and law making was in ascendant is in 1960's till the beginning of 1980's."The decades of the 1960's and 1970's were characterized by increasing levels of environmental initiatives in terms of both governmental authorities and the public which involved interest-group activism, presidential action, congressional legislation, court decisions, state-level programs, among others."(Glen Sussman,