US History I Review for mid term. Lot of info from Columbus Days to the New America (1787).

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Joint-Stock Companies - Form of business organization that pooled funds of many investors or stock holders who can independently sell their shares of the company. This way people in all classes can help fund explorations, and if the exploration is a failure, than the debt is not too great.

Treaty of Tordesillas - Line made by the pope in 1494 where Spain had land west of the line and Portugal had land east of the line.

Major explorers-

Vasco da gama- Portugal- rounded Cape of Good Hope and sailed up the eastern coast

Christopher Columbus- Spain -went ashore on a small island in the Bahamas

Vasco de balboa- Spain -expeditions to panama

Ferdinand Magellan- Spain- first to circumnavigate the world, he died on the way

Pedro cabral- Portugal - set out for India, blown east by storm and reached Brazil

Hernan Cortes- Spain - Cuba Aztecs allied with them many were killed when the Aztecs rose against them

Francisco pizarro- Spain- what is now Peru silver and gold was mined

Hernando de Soto-Spain - Mississippi River

Henry Hudson-Dutch- New York harbor and sailed up river as far as present day Albany (Hudson River)

Jacques Cartier- France - st Lawrence

Spanish Colonial Social Structure:

1. peninsulares- high colonial positions -born in Spain

2. creoles- wealthy -born in American but are Spanish

3. mestizos- Spanish and Indian

4. mulattos- Spanish and African or Indian and African or pure Indian or African

Government of new colonies

Spanish Government

- Monarch chose the audiencias (judicial) and the viceroys (executive) -the audiencias chose the conquistadores -the Indians paid the Spanish taxes

-created encomienda system: natives worked for the Spanish, in return for food, protection, and religious guidance

-motives: gold glory and god

-tried to spread Roman Catholic but couldn't communicate with the...