HISTORY MIDTERM REVIEW
Joint-Stock Companies - Form of business organization that pooled funds of many investors or stock holders who can independently sell their shares of the company. This way people in all classes can help fund explorations, and if the exploration is a failure, than the debt is not too great.
Treaty of Tordesillas - Line made by the pope in 1494 where Spain had land west of the line and Portugal had land east of the line.
Vasco da gama- Portugal- rounded Cape of Good Hope and sailed up the eastern coast
Christopher Columbus- Spain -went ashore on a small island in the Bahamas
Vasco de balboa- Spain -expeditions to panama
Ferdinand Magellan- Spain- first to circumnavigate the world, he died on the way
Pedro cabral- Portugal - set out for India, blown east by storm and reached Brazil
Hernan Cortes- Spain - Cuba Aztecs allied with them many were killed when the Aztecs rose against them
Francisco pizarro- Spain- what is now Peru silver and gold was mined
Hernando de Soto-Spain - Mississippi River
Henry Hudson-Dutch- New York harbor and sailed up river as far as present day Albany (Hudson River)
Jacques Cartier- France - st Lawrence
Spanish Colonial Social Structure:
1. peninsulares- high colonial positions -born in Spain
2. creoles- wealthy -born in American but are Spanish
3. mestizos- Spanish and Indian
4. mulattos- Spanish and African or Indian and African or pure Indian or African
Government of new colonies
- Monarch chose the audiencias (judicial) and the viceroys (executive) -the audiencias chose the conquistadores -the Indians paid the Spanish taxes
-created encomienda system: natives worked for the Spanish, in return for food, protection, and religious guidance
-motives: gold glory and god
-tried to spread Roman Catholic but couldn't communicate with the...