Frames are both windows on the world and lenses that bring the world into focus. Frames filter out some things while allowing others to pass through easily. Frames help us order experience and decide what to do. Every manager, consultant, or policymaker relies on a personal frame or image to gather information, make judgments, and determine how best to get things done. Bolman and Deal's four frames to analysis:
The structural frame emphasizes goals, specialized roles, and formal relationships. Structures--commonly depicted by organization charts--are designed to fit an organization's environment and technology. Organizations allocate responsibilities to participants (division of labor) and create rules, policies, procedures, and hierarchies to coordinate diverse activities. Recent years have witnessed remarkable inventiveness in designing structures to emphasize flexibility, participation, and quality. Dramatic changes in technology and the business environment have rendered old structures obsolete at an unprecedented rate, spawning a resurgence of interest in organizational design.
Pressures of globalization, competition, technology, customer expectations, and workforce dynamics are causing organizations worldwide to rethink and redesign structural patterns.
Strategy change: During Grove's tenures, the companies just focus on the core PC business, Otellini reorganized into product areas. Instead of remaining focused on PCs, he's pushing Intel to play a key technological role in a half-dozen fields, including consumer electronics, wireless communications, and health care. And rather than just microprocessors, he wants Intel to create all kinds of chips, as well as software, and then meld them together into what he calls "platforms." Intel's goal: to provide total packages of chips and software to makers of laptops, PCs, cell phones, and medical gear. Technology change: Viiv (rhymes with "alive") is the name of a new chip for home PCs, designed to replace your TiVo, stereo, and, potentially, cable or satellite set-top box. It will be able to...