VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT IN COMPOSITION
Research has indicated that knowing words and language usage are basic to success in school and in society (Petty, Harold, & Stoll, 1968). Word empowerment enable individuals to speak, read, and write with confidence and effectiveness. Due to this empowerment, theorists and practioners have long studied the effect of vocabulary on literacy development.
However, the majority of studies, have focused on the effect of vocabulary instruction on reading. Few studies have concentrated on the effect of vocabulary instruction on composition.
Relationship Between Reading And Writing
Traditionally, the relationship between reading and writing has centered on contrasting the two skills. Reading was said to be a receptive process, while writing was defined as a expressive process (Hennings, 1982; Petty & Jensen 1980). Later, though, researchers began to study the congitive processes underlying the acts of reading comprehension and composing (Kucer, 1985). These newer studies have discovered the connectedness of reading and writing as communicative skills.
Such theorists suggest that reading, like writing, involve composing (Petrosky, 1982), and that both reading and writing involve transactions between reader and text (Rosenblatt, 1982). Further, the writing process included reading (Graves & Hansen, 1983).
Vocabulary Instruction In Reading
In other studies, vocabulary knowledge was highly correlated with reading comprehension and also had a strong logical relationship with decoding. (Spiegel, 1991). Pre-reading vocabulary instruction improved students' comprehension of their texts and helped them retain the concepts that were taught. (Stahl,Kapinus, 1991). Research as well as intuition indicated that vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension were related. (Flood, 1992).
Studies by the following indicated that reading comprehension did improve after direct vocabulary instruction: Beck, McCaslin, & McKeown (1980); Draper & Moeller (1971); Kameenui, Carnine, & Freschi (1982); Konopak (1988); and, Stahl & Fairbanks (1986).
Vocabulary Instruction In Writing
The few studies by theorists...