Apartheid was made in 1948 by the South African government in order to discriminate the natives. The word "apart " in apartheid even meant what happened to the two races. It was a plan to keep the Blacks and Whites there, separate and unequal. For example, the Blacks couldn't walk in the same stairway as the Whites or go to the same restaurant, public lavatories, water fountains, etc. This benefited the Whites more than the Blacks, this system is kind of related to slavery.
Native South Africans didn't like apartheid one bit. They who protested against this matter was put in jail and underwent harsh conditions. Outside countries helped the Blacks' calls by enforcing sanctions. Sanctions were functions by one or more countries that keep specific profits from another country. After a while laws were made that abolished apartheid out of South Africa.
There were many Blacks who struggled to break this chain of bondage, Desmond Tutu was one of them.
He was the first native bishop of South Africa. Desmond tried to end apartheid by non-violence. In 1984, for Tutu's effort he received the Nobel Peace Prize. Soon his toil and others to break down the stronghold happened.