Introduction:In 1917, there were two revolutions in Russia : the February revolution, and the October revolution. The February revolution overthrew the monarchy. It was spontaneous and involved uprisings by workers, peasants and soldiers throughout the country. Those uprisings were often led by Soviets (councils.) The October revolution, which was also known as the 'Bolshevik Revolution' was carefully planned. It created the world's first communist state.
Obviously, the revolutions were closely linked and the second one could not have existed without the first one. The essence of the revolutions was found in various events and causes, which had sometimes happened decades earlier.
Russia in 1917In 1917, Russia was the largest and the most populated country of Europe. However, it was out of date and ruled by a tsarist regime. All the institutions that supported this monarchy (the Church, the nobility and the peasants) came from the Middle Ages. Meanwhile, new modern forces (such as the middle class) were being a threat to the monarchy.
There were already a few revolutionary parties such as the Social Revolutionaries, split into the Mensheviks (who wanted peaceful change) and the Bolsheviks (who wanted revolution).
The industry was old fashioned and poorly effective, which gave the country the name of "backward Russia". Russia was also disunited: there were ethical differences and many nationalities around the country. Minority groups such as Jews and Poles were often persecuted. Only 43% of the population was Russian, and it was the only part that could have had their say in the governing elite of the tsarist regime.
PeasantsVery little of Russia's land was taken for useful purposes. About 85% of the population was rural, and this huge number of peasants was unsatisfied because it wanted more cultivable land. Not surprisingly, when it came to domestic issues, everything was...