Abuse of Authority & Hierarchy Communication analysis of article (Friebel & Raith, 2004 vol.35 (2))

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Flow of information is hierarchy structured & required to follow "chain of command"

Hierarchical communication can prevent conflicts between superiors & subordinates

"Strategic Recruiting" can occur

Open communication channel

Link between abuse of managerial authority & hierarchy communication

Organisations have norms & rules

(Wilson '92 Guildsford '94, Diagonal communication links within organisation, vol29)

Middle manager's fear what subordinates may say to top manager's

Upward Appraisals

(Baird 1977, Dynamics of organisational communication)

It's been reported that only 9% use this technique in organisations (Bettenhausen & Fedor 1997, Group and organisation management vol22) Negative views are manager's ordering undesirable tasks, withholding salary increases, making employee's job more difficult Positive view works best on flat hierarchy, participating management, good business environment (Dalton 1998, 5 Forces that affect 360' feedback process)

Pointer's for communication openness Wage structure Effectiveness of recruiting good line manager's Monitoring personnel decisions Job design

Social Comparison in Virtual Work Environments (Deondra S.

Conner 2003, journal of occupational & organisational psychology vol76(1))

The virtual work environment is an emergent phenomenon

(Weisenfeld et al 2001, journal of management vol27(2))

The lack of physical proximity, "changes the interactions & relationships between the parties involved" (Alexander 1997, Long range planning vol30(1))

Working in a virtual context

(Crandall & Wallace 1997,Compensation and benefits review vol29(1)) has three degrees of virtualness;

Telecommuting stage, Front-line stage, Cyber link stage

Equity Theory (Adams 1963)

Consequently, once an individual perceives inequity, there are six options:

Change their inputs

Change their outcomes

Distort perceptions of self

Distort perceptions of others

Choose a different referent

Leave or engage in withdrawal behaviours

Comparison Theory Research (Kulik & Ambrose 1992, Academy of management review vol17(2))

The use of such theories explain various concepts like worker performance, perceptions of justice and fairness and turnover

A study concluded that workers paid equitable wages were more...