Essay by muemmessias November 2007

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Research Essay“Aggression”inGeneral and Social Psychology1. Introduction2. Theories about the acquirement and the causes of aggressive behavior2.1 Definition of aggression2.2 Forms of aggression3. Psychological approaches3.1 Psychoanalytic aggression theory (Freud, Adler)3.2 Ethologic Instinct Concept (Lorenz)3.3 Motivation Approach (Kornadt 1982)3.4 Learning and Cultural Mechanisms – The “Bobo- Doll” experiment (Bandura, Oatley, Geen)3.5 Social development theory (Huesmann)3. 6 Frustration-aggression theory (Dollard et al.)3.6.1 Expansion/precision of the frustration-aggression model (Berkowitz)4. Biology of Aggression4.1 Aggression and Serotonin Level4 .2 Genetic Factors of Aggression5. Conclusion6. References 1. IntroductionOne sees on an about 5000 years old make-up pallet of the Egyptian king Narmer how he hits out with a club at a man. The Bible describes in large numbers acts of violence primarily in the Old Testament. There was a murder already in the first family: Cain killed Abel.

As we see violence and aggression are as old as the mankind. But where does it come from and what is responsible for the aggression of individuals? This paper shall describe the psychological approaches of aggression and also the answers the question if aggression is inheritable?2.

Theories about the acquirement and the causes of aggressive behavior2.1 Definition of aggressionDollar, Doob, Miller, Mowrer and Sears 1939 define aggression "as an action whose aim reaction is the injury of an organism (or organism substitute)". "Aggression" always therefore means a behavior, no motive and no aggression oriented emotion like trouble, rage or hate. The "targeting" in the definition prevents that damaging by chance is regarded as aggression. The "intention" also cannot be regarded as a criterion since otherwise e.g. intentions denying criminals,animals, and children must be excluded from aggression research. Vandalism and pollution can be classed as aggressions, if "organism" also puts groups or institutions under it its hand.

2.2 Forms of aggressionIn principle, two forms of the aggression can be distinguished:The self-preservation...