Aristotile Book VIII

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1. Book VIII. Friendship.

o Kinds of friendship 1. Friendship both necessary and noble: main questions about it.

2. Three objects of love: implications of friendship.

3. Three corresponding kinds of friendship: superiority of friendship whose motive is the good.

4. Contrast between the best and the inferior kinds.

5. The state of friendship distinguished from the activity of friendship and from the feeling of friendliness.

6. Various relations between the three kinds.

o Reciprocity of friendship 1. In unequal friendships a proportion must be maintained.

2. Loving is more of the essence of friendship than being loved.

o Relation of reciprocity in friendship to that involved in other forms of community 1. Parallelism of friendship and justice: the state comprehends all lesser communities.

2. Classification of constitutions: analogies with family relations.

3. Corresponding forms of friendship, and of justice.

4. Various forms of friendship between relations.

o Casuistry of friendship 1.

Principles to be observed (a) in friendship between equals.

2. Principles to be observed (b) in friendship between unequals.

2. Book IX. Friendship (continued) 1. Principles to be observed (c) where the motives on the two sides are different.

2. Conflict of obligations.

3. Occasions of breaking off friendship.

o Internal nature of friendship 1. Friendship is based on self-love.

2. Relation of friendship to goodwill.

3. Relation of friendship to unanimity.

4. The pleasure of beneficence.

5. The nature of true self-love.

o The need of friendship 1. Why does the happy person need friends? 2. The limit to the number of friends.

3. Are friends more needed in good or in bad fortune? 4. The essence of friendship is living together.