bacterial recombination

Essay by jimenez3628 October 2014

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Bacterial recombination

Genetic recombination is a process in which a new genotype is obtained through the exchange of genetic material between homologous DNA sequences from two different sources. Bacteria can not only pass on their genes to their offspring but also laterally, other organisms of the same generation. This is known as horizontal gene transfer. Recombination involves the production of new genetic from the initially generated by mutation combinations. Two DNA molecules having different mutations can exchange segments and result in the appearance of new genetic combinations. Bacteria and viruses, as well as the bodies also have eurcarióticos recombination mechanisms. For bacteria, there are three mechanisms for recombination: transformation, conjugation, and transduction. The existence of these mechanisms allows the construction of genetic maps in bacteria. In each of these mechanisms involves the participation of a donor cell that gives a portion of the total DNA in a recipient cell and after the transfer, the part of the DNA of the donor cell is usually incorporated into the host cell DNA; the rest is degraded by cellular enzymes.

• Conversion: under certain conditions exogenous DNA fragments can enter the interior of the bacteria. Exogenous DNA segments can be exchanged with the main chromosome of the bacterial DNA. • Conjugation: transfer of genetic material (DNA) from a donor bacterium to another recipient. Requires physical contact between the two bacterial strains, the donor and recipient. Physical contact is established via the F pili-forming bacteria in the donor tube conjugation. The DNA of the host bacterium can exchange the DNA segments to the donor. • Transduction: no need for physical contact between two bacterial strains. The vehicle or vector carrying DNA of a bacterium to another is a virus; which have two types of multiplication cycle: a virulent or lytic and lysogenic or other...