Bull Run

Essay by PaperNerd ContributorHigh School, 11th grade August 2001

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On July 16, 1862, the first battle of the Civil War, between the Union Armies and Confederate Armies, took place near Masassas Junction, Virginia. The Union Army, lead by Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, marched from Washington to Bull Run to attack the confederate Army, lead by General Gustave Toutant Beauegard. On July 21, 1861, the Union Armies crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the confederate driving them back to Henry Hill. Later that afternoon the reinforcements from the confederate army, which arrived by railroad, drove the Union Army back to Washington, leaving the Confederates Army victorious.

General Gustave Toutant Beauregard. Beauregard was a French officer who studied under Napoleon. He graduated second in his class at West Point in 1838. He was promated to Major for his outstanding work in the Mexican War. On Feb. 20, 1861, he resigined from the Federal Army, and nine days later he was appointed General of the Confederate Army.

He was the commander of the forces that fired on Fort Sumter to start the Civil War on April 12, 1861. In the Battle of Bull Run, he was the commander of Army of the Potomac. The Army of the Potomac concisted of seven infantry brigades and one artillery brigade, which totaled 21,923 men. Of that 21,923 men only ten thousand actually had arms to fight with.

The Army of the Shenandoah was commanded by Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston. He also graduated from West Point in1829. Early in his Federal career, he commanded artillery units in the Mexican War. In April of 1860, he was appointed Quartermaster General. One year later he resigned and joined the Confederacy. He was the highest ranking regular Army officer to resigned his commision with the Federal Army to join the Confederacy. On May 14, 1861 he was...