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CALUMNY We're all familiar with the terms lying, exaggeration, slander, and libel. Calumny is very similar in its detriment to one's character. Calumny means a false statement maliciously made to injure another's reputation; slander. As cited, "Detraction and Calumny can destroy the honor of one's neighbor."(Accusations and Responses 2002) Calumny is a form of slander, which is any defamation that is spoken and heard. Defamation, libel, and slander are civil wrongs that harm a persons' reputation, and decreases their respect and confidence from others. Imputed lying on another is considered calumny. Slander is a spoken untruth that injures one's reputation. Writing and printing a similar statement is called libel.

The questions of freedom of speech were generally found to be not relevant To libel or slander cases. Defendants were held strictly liable even if they had no idea that the communication was false or defamatory, or had exercised reasonable caution in ascertaining its truthfulness.

Defamation is considered morally wrong if it unjustly has a negative effect on the esteem in which an individual is held by the community. It has been argued that defamation should not be subject to criminal penalties. In others' opinion, defamation is only words. Any and all statements regarding a person must be understood in the light of possible exceptions in order for it to be said that sin/ or a crime has been committed. Lawyers, particularly, should be aware that rules normally allow for variances and/or have exceptions. Many jurisdictions do not act according to the will of God in regard to the defense of the innocent. Opposition to truth in regard to grave matter is grave scandal. Failure to support truth in regard to grave matter should also be considered a grave scandal. (Accusations and Responses pg.2) "We live in cynical times, but this...